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Start Preamble Announcement Type aricept 5mg price. Initial Key Dates. February 15, 2021, first award cycle aricept 5mg price deadline date. August 15, 2021, last award cycle deadline date. September 15, 2021, last award cycle deadline date for supplemental loan repayment program funds.

September 30, aricept 5mg price 2021, entry on duty deadline date. I. Funding Opportunity Description The Indian Health Service (IHS) estimated budget for fiscal year (FY) 2021 includes $34,800,000 for the IHS Loan Repayment Program (LRP) for health professional educational loans (undergraduate and graduate) in return for full-time clinical service as defined in the IHS LRP policy at https://www.ihs.gov/​loanrepayment/​policiesandprocedures/​ in Indian health programs. This notice is being published early to coincide with the recruitment activity of the IHS which competes with other Government and private health aricept 5mg price management organizations to employ qualified health professionals. This program is authorized by the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (IHCIA) Section 108, codified at 25 U.S.C.

1616a. II. Award Information The estimated amount available is approximately $24,283,777 to support approximately 539 competing awards averaging $45,040 per award for a two-year contract. The estimated amount available is approximately $14,203,650 to support approximately 575 competing awards averaging $24,702 per award for a one-year extension. One-year contract extensions will receive priority consideration in any award cycle.

Applicants selected for participation in the FY 2021 program cycle will be expected to begin their service period no later than September 30, 2021. III. Eligibility Information A. Eligible Applicants Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 1616a(b), to be eligible to participate in the LRP, an individual must.

(1) (A) Be enrolled— (i) In a course of study or program in an accredited institution, as determined by the Secretary, within any State and be scheduled to complete such course of study in the same year such individual applies to participate in such program. Or (ii) In an approved graduate training program in a health profession. Or (B) Have a degree in a health profession and a license to practice in a State. And (2) (A) Be eligible for, or hold an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Regular Corps of the Public Health Service (PHS). Or (B) Be eligible for selection for service in the Regular Corps of the PHS.

Or (C) Meet the professional standards for civil service employment in the IHS. Or (D) Be employed in an Indian health program without service obligation. And (3) Submit to the Secretary an application for a contract to the LRP. The Secretary must approve the contract before the disbursement of loan repayments can be made to the participant. Participants will be required to fulfill their contract service agreements through full-time clinical practice at an Indian health program site determined by the Secretary.

Loan repayment sites are characterized by physical, cultural, and professional isolation, and have histories of frequent staff turnover. Indian health program sites are annually prioritized within the Agency by discipline, based on need or vacancy. The IHS LRP's ranking system gives high site scores to those sites that are most in need of specific health professions. Awards are given to the applications that match the highest priorities until funds are no longer available. Any individual who owes an obligation for health professional service to the Federal Government, a State, or other entity, is not eligible for the LRP unless the obligation will be completely satisfied before they begin service under this program.

25 U.S.C. 1616a authorizes the IHS LRP and provides in pertinent part as follows. (a)(1) The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall establish a program to be known as the Indian Health Service Loan Repayment Program (hereinafter referred to as the Loan Repayment Program) in order to assure an adequate supply of trained health professionals necessary to maintain accreditation of, and provide health care services to Indians through, Indian health programs. For the purposes of this program, the term “Indian health program” is defined in 25 U.S.C. 1616a(a)(2)(A), as follows.

(A) The term Indian health program means any health program or facility Start Printed Page 64484funded, in whole or in part, by the Service for the benefit of Indians and administered— (i) Directly by the Service. (ii) By any Indian Tribe or Tribal or Indian organization pursuant to a contract under— (I) The Indian Self-Determination Act, or (II) Section 23 of the Act of April 30, 1908, (25 U.S.C. 47), popularly known as the Buy Indian Act. Or (iii) By an urban Indian organization pursuant to Title V of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act. 25 U.S.C.

1616a, authorizes the IHS to determine specific health professions for which IHS LRP contracts will be awarded. Annually, the Director, Division of Health Professions Support, sends a letter to the Director, Office of Clinical and Preventive Services, IHS Area Directors, Tribal health officials, and Urban Indian health programs directors to request a list of positions for which there is a need or vacancy. The list of priority health professions that follows is based upon the needs of the IHS as well as upon the needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives. (a) Medicine—Allopathic and Osteopathic doctorate degrees. (b) Nursing—Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) (Clinical nurses only).

(c) Nursing—Bachelor of Science (BSN) (Clinical nurses only). (d) Nursing (NP, DNP)—Nurse Practitioner/Advanced Practice Nurse in Family Practice, Psychiatry, Geriatric, Women's Health, Pediatric Nursing. (e) Nursing—Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM). (f) Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA). (g) Physician Assistant (Certified).

(h) Dentistry—DDS or DMD degrees. (i) Dental Hygiene. (j) Social Work—Independent Licensed Master's degree. (k) Counseling—Master's degree. (l) Clinical Psychology—Ph.D.

Or PsyD. (m) Counseling Psychology—Ph.D. (n) Optometry—OD. (o) Pharmacy—PharmD. (p) Podiatry—DPM.

(q) Physical/Occupational/Speech Language Therapy or Audiology—MS, Doctoral. (r) Registered Dietician—BS. (s) Clinical Laboratory Science—BS. (t) Diagnostic Radiology Technology, Ultrasonography, and Respiratory Therapy. Associate and B.S.

(u) Environmental Health (Sanitarian). BS and Master's level. (v) Engineering (Environmental). BS and MS (Engineers must provide environmental engineering services to be eligible.). (w) Chiropractor.

Licensed. (x) Acupuncturist. Licensed. B. Cost Sharing or Matching Not applicable.

C. Other Requirements Interested individuals are reminded that the list of eligible health and allied health professions is effective for applicants for FY 2021. These priorities will remain in effect until superseded. IV. Application and Submission Information A.

Content and Form of Application Submission Each applicant will be responsible for submitting a complete application. Go to http://www.ihs.gov/​loanrepayment for more information on how to apply electronically. The application will be considered complete if the following documents are included. Employment Verification—Documentation of your employment with an Indian health program as applicable. Commissioned Corps orders, Tribal employment documentation or offer letter, or Notification of Personnel Action (SF-50)—For current Federal employees.

License to Practice—A photocopy of your current, non-temporary, full and unrestricted license to practice (issued by any State, Washington, DC, or Puerto Rico). Loan Documentation—A copy of all current statements related to the loans submitted as part of the LRP application. Transcripts—Transcripts do not need to be official. If applicable, if you are a member of a federally recognized Tribe or an Alaska Native (recognized by the Secretary of the Interior), provide a certification of Tribal enrollment by the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) (Certification. Form BIA—4432 Category A—Members of federally Recognized Indian Tribes, Bands or Communities or Category D—Alaska Native).

B. Submission Dates and Address Applications for the FY 2021 LRP will be accepted and evaluated monthly beginning February 15, 2021, and will continue to be accepted each month thereafter until all funds are exhausted for FY 2021 awards. Subsequent monthly deadline dates are scheduled for the fifteenth of each month until August 15, 2021. Applications shall be considered as meeting the deadline if they are either. (1) Received on or before the deadline date.

Or (2) Received after the deadline date, but with a legible postmark dated on or before the deadline date. (Applicants should request a legibly dated U.S. Postal Service postmark or obtain a legibly dated receipt from a commercial carrier or U.S. Postal Service. Private metered postmarks are not acceptable as proof of timely mailing).

Applications submitted after the monthly closing date will be held for consideration in the next monthly funding cycle. Applicants who do not receive funding by September 30, 2020, will be notified in writing. Application documents should be sent to. IHS Loan Repayment Program, 5600 Fishers Lane, Mail Stop. OHR (11E53A), Rockville, Maryland 20857.

C. Intergovernmental Review This program is not subject to review under Executive Order 12372. D. Funding Restrictions Not applicable. E.

Other Submission Requirements New applicants are responsible for using the online application. Applicants requesting a contract extension must do so in writing by February 15, 2021, to ensure the highest possibility of being funded a contract extension. V. Application Review Information A. Criteria The IHS will utilize the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) score developed by the Health Resources and Services Administration for each Indian health program for which there is a need or vacancy.

At each Indian health facility, the HPSA score for mental health will be utilized for all behavioral health professions, the HPSA score for dental health will be utilized for all dentistry and dental hygiene health professions, and the HPSA score for primary care will be used for all other approved health professions. In determining applications to be approved and contracts to accept, the IHS will give priority to applications made by American Indians and Alaska Natives and to individuals recruited through the efforts of Indian Tribes or Tribal or Indian organizations. B. Review and Selection Process Loan repayment awards will be made only to those individuals serving at facilities with have a site score of 17 or above through March 1, 2021, if funding is available.Start Printed Page 64485 One or all of the following factors may be applicable to an applicant, and the applicant who has the most of these factors, all other criteria being equal, will be selected. (1) An applicant's length of current employment in the IHS, Tribal, or Urban program.

(2) Availability for service earlier than other applicants (first come, first served). (3) Date the individual's application was received. C. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates Not applicable. VI.

Award Administration Information A. Award Notices Notice of awards will be mailed on the last working day of each month. Once the applicant is approved for participation in the LRP, the applicant will receive confirmation of his/her loan repayment award and the duty site at which he/she will serve his/her loan repayment obligation. B. Administrative and National Policy Requirements Applicants may sign contractual agreements with the Secretary for two years.

The IHS may repay all, or a portion, of the applicant's health profession educational loans (undergraduate and graduate) for tuition expenses and reasonable educational and living expenses in amounts up to $20,000 per year for each year of contracted service. Payments will be made annually to the participant for the purpose of repaying his/her outstanding health profession educational loans. Payment of health profession education loans will be made to the participant within 120 days, from the date the contract becomes effective. The effective date of the contract is calculated from the date it is signed by the Secretary or his/her delegate, or the IHS, Tribal, Urban, or Buy Indian health center entry-on-duty date, whichever is more recent. In addition to the loan payment, participants are provided tax assistance payments in an amount not less than 20 percent and not more than 39 percent of the participant's total amount of loan repayments made for the taxable year involved.

The loan repayments and the tax assistance payments are taxable income and will be reported to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The tax assistance payment will be paid to the IRS directly on the participant's behalf. LRP award recipients should be aware that the IRS may place them in a higher tax bracket than they would otherwise have been prior to their award. C. Contract Extensions Any individual who enters this program and satisfactorily completes his or her obligated period of service may apply to extend his/her contract on a year-by-year basis, as determined by the IHS.

Participants extending their contracts may receive up to the maximum amount of $20,000 per year plus an additional 20 percent for Federal withholding. VII. Agency Contact Please address inquiries to Ms. Jacqueline K. Santiago, Chief, IHS Loan Repayment Program, 5600 Fishers Lane, Mail Stop.

OHR (11E53A), Rockville, Maryland 20857, Telephone. 301/443-3396 [between 8:00 a.m. And 5:00 p.m. (Eastern Standard Time) Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays]. VIII.

Other Information Indian Health Service area offices and service units that are financially able are authorized to provide additional funding to make awards to applicants in the LRP, but not to exceed the maximum allowable amount authorized by statute per year, plus tax assistance. All additional funding must be made in accordance with the priority system outlined below. Health professions given priority for selection above the $20,000 threshold are those identified as meeting the criteria in 25 U.S.C. 1616a(g)(2)(A), which provides that the Secretary shall consider the extent to which each such determination. (i) Affects the ability of the Secretary to maximize the number of contracts that can be provided under the LRP from the amounts appropriated for such contracts.

(ii) Provides an incentive to serve in Indian health programs with the greatest shortages of health professionals. And (iii) Provides an incentive with respect to the health professional involved remaining in an Indian health program with such a health professional shortage, and continuing to provide primary health services, after the completion of the period of obligated service under the LRP. Contracts may be awarded to those who are available for service no later than September 30, 2021, and must be in compliance with 25 U.S.C. 1616a. In order to ensure compliance with the statutes, area offices or service units providing additional funding under this section are responsible for notifying the LRP of such payments before funding is offered to the LRP participant.

Should an IHS area office contribute to the LRP, those funds will be used for only those sites located in that area. Those sites will retain their relative ranking from their Health Professions Shortage Areas (HPSA) scores. For example, the Albuquerque Area Office identifies supplemental monies for dentists. Only the dental positions within the Albuquerque Area will be funded with the supplemental monies consistent with the HPSA scores within that area. Should an IHS service unit contribute to the LRP, those funds will be used for only those sites located in that service unit.

Those sites will retain their relative ranking from their HPSA scores. Start Signature Michael D. Weahkee, Assistant Surgeon General, RADM, U.S. Public Health Service, Director, Indian Health Service. End Signature End Preamble [FR Doc.

2020-22649 Filed 10-9-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4165-16-PIn the upper Midwest, physicians see median compensation that's 10%-15% higher than the national average.Rural hospitals, as many healthcare organizations, are struggling financially through the pandemic. But it's a different story when it comes to physician compensation, particularly in the upper Midwest, where physicians see median compensation that's 10%-15% higher than the national average.This discovery comes courtesy of a survey conducted by Faegre Drinker healthcare attorney Aaron Dobosenski, which revealed compensation and productivity metrics for 11 physician specialties and eight advanced provider types, as well as statistics on provider benefits and recruitment and retention in Midwest rural hospitals, with comparisons to national survey data throughout.With the assistance of the Minnesota Hospital Association and the Iowa Hospital Association, the Midwest Rural Hospital Provider Compensation Survey was sent to about 250 rural hospitals in the upper Midwest. Roughly half of the 44 rural hospital respondents are independent hospitals, and half are rural hospitals affiliated with systems. Thirty-nine of the respondents are certified critical access hospitals.There were significant disparities in compensation-related metrics in Midwest rural hospitals as compared to national physician compensation surveys.

The survey reports that, on average in 2019, median compensation was 10%–15% higher, work relative value unit (wRVU) productivity was 20%–25% lower, and median total compensation per wRVU was 40%–50% higher in Midwest rural hospitals than was reported in the most recent surveys.The likely reason for the discrepancies is that rural facilities tend to pay physicians more due to the difficulty in recruiting new talent to rural communities. The upper Midwest in this survey encompassed Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Iowa.WHAT'S THE IMPACT?. Some of the results were surprising. In emergency medicine, for example, the typical ER physician is paid about 5% more in a rural hospital than in a large health system. But that same physician typically produces about 50% less in professional services volume in terms of wRVU than those in urban settings.

It's an important consideration for hospitals concerned about whether they're paying their physicians fair market value.Family medicine physicians account for roughly 30% of all physicians employed by the survey respondents, by far the most prevalent physician specialty. Median compensation for these physicians is 5%-10% higher than reported in national surveys. But median wRVU production is about 10% lower, and median compensation per wRVU is 15-20% higher.While general surgeons represent fewer overall physicians than other specialties, more respondents reported employing at least one general surgeon than any other physician specialty except family medicine. Median compensation for respondents' general surgeons is 10%-15% higher than in national surveys. Median wRVU production is 35%-40% lower, and median compensation per wRVU is about 70% higher than national survey medians for general surgery.

Only about 25% of respondents reported employing hospitalists. For those that do, median compensation was 5%-10% higher than the national average. Median wRVU production is about 20% lower, and median compensation per wRVU is about 40% higher.Like hospitalists, only about 25% of respondents reported employing internal medicine physicians, likely engaging them as hospitalists to some degree. But the numbers were similar. Median compensation is 10%-15% higher than the average, median wRVU production is 25%-30% lower and median compensation per wRVU is 55%-60% higher.The report found similar numbers among obstetrics and gynecology physicians, ophthalmologists, orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians.THE LARGER TRENDThe COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered the job market for physicians, leading to the temporary reduction of both starting salaries and practice options for doctors, according to a July Merritt Hawkins report.While there was an increase in physician-search engagements over the 12-month period ending March 31, demand for physicians since March 31, as gauged by the number of new search engagements, has declined by over 30%.

At the same time, the number of physicians inquiring about job opportunities has increased, which has created an opportune market for those healthcare facilities seeking physicians.The Medical Group Management Association indicates that physician-practice revenue has declined by an average of 55%, since patients have been either unable or unwilling to seek medical treatment. As a result, fewer physician practices and hospitals are seeking physicians as they struggle with lower revenues and a focus on treating coronavirus patients. Twitter. @JELagasseEmail the writer. Jeff.lagasse@himssmedia.com.

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The Human Rights Campaign Foundation has named Northwell Health one of the aricept 5mg price nation's most inclusive medical facilities for LGBTQ individuals, and the most inclusive health institution in New York State. Just three other facilities outrank the Northwell Health hospitals--27 facilities in all -- in the HRC's 2020 Healthcare Equality Index. The HRC analyzed the patient visitation records and employment policies of over 1,700 facilities nationwide to compile their 13th yearly index.Northwell facilities mandate employees to:ask hospital patrons for their preferred pronouns, offer of endocrine-hormone replacement therapy and subsequent patient monitoring, aricept 5mg price provide referrals to trans-positive therapists who have experience with transgender and gender non-conforming individuals for behavioral and mental health assessments, provide social work programs for LGBTQIA+ patients,adhere to patient rights policy prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, age, gender identity, gender expression or disability.The Hyde Park branch of Northwell Health recently launched its Northwell Health Physician Partners LGBTQ Transgender Health Program. A Queens Northwell location boasts an employment and career development program geared toward transgendered individuals.and offering a host of services highlighted by the Gerald J.

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€‹Regional and rural patients now have access to 24-hour critical care under a $21.7 million telestroke service being rolled out across NSW.Patients at Port Macquarie and Coffs Harbour hospitals are the first to benefit from the NSW Telestroke Service, based at Sydney’s Prince aricept administration of Wales Hospital. Health Minister Brad Hazzard said the revolutionary service will expand to up to aricept administration 23 sites over the next three years. €œThe NSW Telestroke Service will remove geographical barriers and improve outcomes for thousands of regional and rural stroke patients every year, giving them a much greater chance of surviving and leading a normal life,” Mr Hazzard said. €œPeople in regional and rural areas have a far greater risk of hospitalisation from stroke and this vital service will provide them with immediate, life-saving diagnosis and aricept administration treatment from the state’s leading clinicians.” In 2018-19, 13,651 people were hospitalised for a stroke in NSW.

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“There are only limited reasons anyone from Victoria should be entering NSW and people have been turned back despite being allowed on the plane in Melbourne,” Mr Hazzard said. €œVictorian residents are not permitted into NSW at all unless they are needed for specific purposes and even then have to apply for and get a permit aricept administration. €œWe are constantly reviewing the situation in Victoria and will adjust the health orders as necessary to protect the people of NSW.” Anyone who flies into NSW from Victoria must either be a NSW resident or have a relevant permit that allows entry into NSW – that can include:defence officialsdoctors and nursescritical workers in energy, mining and constructionchild protection workersdisability workers.All travellers are provided with a pack of two masks and hand sanitiser by the airlines. Upon arrival aricept administration into NSW all passengers from Victoria are.

given masks if they left them on the planetemperature checkedasked relevant questions about their health. And their permit is checked to ensure it complies with the strict permit system.Anyone without a valid permit is referred to NSW Police and taken aricept administration to the Special Health Accommodation to complete 14 days of quarantine. Strict instructions and rules are in place for those going into ‘Home Isolation’ including. Recommended they be aricept administration collected in a private car by family or friendsnot to use public transport to get hometo only sit in the back seat of a car with the windows open and air conditioning not on recirculationtold to wear their face masks and observe hand hygiene recommendations, andcalled to make sure they arrive home.NSW Health is provided the contact details of everyone who enters NSW from Victoria.

NSW Police is conducting regular compliance checks for people told to go into ‘Home Isolation’ as well as responding to reports from the community in relation to suspected breaches. Over the weekend, NSW Police visited almost 600 homes to check that those that aricept administration were meant to be self-isolating were doing so. In addition to that, over the same period NSW Police received 374 calls to Crime Stoppers reporting suspected breaches of the health orders, the majority of which were for people suspected of not following self-isolation rules. ​Four new cases of COVID-19 were diagnosed in aricept administration the 24 hours to 8pm last night, bringing the total number of cases in NSW to 3,929.Confirmed cases (including interstate residents in NSW health care facilities)3,929Deaths (in NSW from confirmed cases)54Total tests carried out​​2,338,155 There were 10,129 tests reported in the 24-hour reporting period, compared with 38,526 in the previous 24 hours.

While the latter number (38,526) appears to be a record, it includes 18,956 tests conducted by a private laboratory between 10 August and 2 September but not previously reported to NSW Health. All of these tests had negative results and there was no impact on the timely notification of results aricept administration to any individual tested. The private facility has now resolved the issue.Of the four new cases to 8pm last night, one is a returned overseas traveller in hotel quarantine and three are locally acquired.All three locally acquired cases reported today, who are all healthcare workers, follow investigations in response to the healthcare worker case reported on 5 September who worked at the emergency departments (EDs) in Concord Repatriation General Hospital and Liverpool Hospital.Four healthcare workers across Concord and Liverpool EDs have now tested positive for COVID-19.The previously reported health care worker worked two shifts while potentially infectious. These shifts took place at Concord ED on 1 aricept administration September from 2pm until midnight and at Liverpool ED on 3 September from 8am to 6pm.

The health care worker reported wearing full PPE for all patient interactions and a mask at other times. The case isolated and got tested aricept administration immediately on developing symptoms. The three new cases reported today are. A healthcare worker who worked at Concord ED on 1 September from 7pm aricept administration until 7am and while potentially infectious Two healthcare workers who worked at Liverpool ED on 2, 3 and 4 September.The three newly reported health workers reported having no symptoms while at work and wore personal protective equipment while caring for patients.In addition overnight a new case has been reported in a visitor to a patient at Concord ED on 1 September.

This case will be reported in tomorrow's numbers.Patients considered close contacts and all staff working at Concord and Liverpool EDs at the same times as the positive cases are being isolated and tested. Investigations into the source of these infections are ongoing.Locations linked to known cases, advice on testing and isolation, and areas identified for increased testing can be found at NSW Government - Latest new and aricept administration updates.​NSW Health is treating 83 COVID-19 cases, including seven in intensive care, four of whom are being ventilated. Most cases (84%) being treated by NSW Health are in non-acute, out-of-hospital care.COVID-19 continues to circulate in the community and we must all be vigilant. To help stop the spread aricept administration of COVID-19.

If you are unwell, get tested and isolate right away – don't delay. Wash your aricept administration hands regularly. Take hand sanitiser with you when you go out. Keep your distance aricept administration.

Leave 1.5 metres between yourself and others. Wear a mask on public transport, ride share, taxis, shopping, places of worship and other places where you aricept administration can't physically distance. A full list of COVID-19 testing clinics is available or people can visit their GP.Confirmed cases to dateOverseas2,087Interstate acquired89Locally acquired – contact of a confirmed case and/or in a known cluster1,359Locally acquired – contact not identified394Under investigation0Counts reported for a particular day may vary over time with ongoing enhanced surveillance activities.Returned travellers in hotel quarantine to dateSymptomatic travell​ers tested4,939Found positive122Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 220,900Fo​und positive102Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 1033,715Found positive120Video update​The safe use of medicines within multicultural communities is the main focus of Multicultural Health Week this year.Research shows that people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds experience higher rates of adverse outcomes from poor medication management, including medication related hospital admissions.Consultations with key stakeholders identified that people from multicultural communities often find information related to their medicines complex and overwhelming. There is also a lack of translated resources to help communities support the aricept administration safe use of medicines.

In some communities, there are also cultural practices around sharing medicines with others.In her message at today’s online launch, Secretary for Health Ms Elizabeth Koff stressed the relevance of the Multicultural Week 2020 theme ‘Health Literacy and Safe Use of Medicines.“This year has been a challenging one for all of us especially with the COVID-19 pandemic. We all need to work together aricept administration to ensure our families, friends and loved ones are all safe. The theme is particularly important during this time. The week highlights the safe use of medicines and also the role your pharmacist has in supporting your health and safe use of medicines” Ms Koff said.“This initiative aricept administration showcases our work in delivering the initiatives highlighted in NSW Plan for Healthy Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities 2019-2023.

The plan aims to ensure that people from culturally and linguistically diverse communities have equitable access to health care services that are culturally responsive, safe and high quality”.The Week also informs multicultural communities on the important role their pharmacist has in supporting their health and the safe use of medicine Key messages emphasise the importance of knowing:what your medicine is forhow to take your medicine safelythe active ingredient in your medicinethat the packaging of medicines that are the same may look differentIt is also important for people to understand how to manage their medicines during the Covid-19 pandemic.Lisa Woodland, Director, NSW Multicultural Health Communication Service (MHCS) encouraged all communities and health professionals to access the multilingual resources developed for Multicultural Health Week. These resources communicate the key messages about the safe use of medicines and the role of pharmacists in supporting people’s health.“This year, we have worked in close collaboration with expert health professionals, consumer representatives from multicultural backgrounds, and valued health service partners in developing multilingual resources in close to 30 languages which highlight the how people can take their medicines aricept administration safely”, said Ms. Woodland.Resources for the week include a one-minute video which highlights the importance of talking with your pharmacist about your medicines available in 7 languages. Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, aricept administration Greek, Italian, Vietnamese and English.

A one-page factsheet about using medicines safely - available in 29 languages, social media posts and radio advertisements in multiple languages.These resources are available to download for free from www.multiculturalhealthweek.com..

€‹Regional and rural patients now have access to 24-hour critical care under a $21.7 million telestroke service aricept 5mg price being rolled out across NSW.Patients at Port Macquarie and Coffs Harbour hospitals are the first to benefit from the NSW Telestroke Service, based at Sydney’s Prince of Wales Hospital. Health Minister aricept 5mg price Brad Hazzard said the revolutionary service will expand to up to 23 sites over the next three years. €œThe NSW Telestroke Service will remove geographical barriers and improve outcomes for thousands of regional and rural stroke patients every year, giving them a much greater chance of surviving and leading a normal life,” Mr Hazzard said.

€œPeople in regional and rural areas have a far greater risk of hospitalisation from stroke and aricept 5mg price this vital service will provide them with immediate, life-saving diagnosis and treatment from the state’s leading clinicians.” In 2018-19, 13,651 people were hospitalised for a stroke in NSW. Of those, 32 per cent were from regional, rural or remote areas. A successful pilot project in the Hunter New England, Central Coast and Mid North Coast local health districts since 2017 has already helped 1200 patients aricept 5mg price.

The Stroke Foundation’s Chief Executive Officer Sharon McGowan welcomed the launch of the statewide service, jointly funded by the State and Federal governments. €œWhen a stroke strikes, aricept 5mg price it kills up to 1.9 million brain cells per minute. This service will have an enormous impact by providing time-critical, best-practice treatment that saves lives and reduces lifelong disability,” Ms McGowan said.

Prince of Wales Hospital’s aricept 5mg price Director of Clinical Neuroscience Professor Ken Butcher said. €œThe service links expert stroke clinicians with local emergency physicians to quickly determine the best possible treatment plan for a patient.” ​A strict permit system is in place for all flights arriving in NSW from Victoria and passengers undergo comprehensive police and health checks upon arrival. Health Minister Brad Hazzard said all flights are met by NSW Health staff and police officers to ensure anyone aricept 5mg price entering NSW complies with the current health orders.

“There are only limited reasons anyone from Victoria should be entering NSW and people have been turned back despite being allowed on the plane in Melbourne,” Mr Hazzard said. €œVictorian residents are aricept 5mg price not permitted into NSW at all unless they are needed for specific purposes and even then have to apply for and get a permit. €œWe are constantly reviewing the situation in Victoria and will adjust the health orders as necessary to protect the people of NSW.” Anyone who flies into NSW from Victoria must either be a NSW resident or have a relevant permit that allows entry into NSW – that can include:defence officialsdoctors and nursescritical workers in energy, mining and constructionchild protection workersdisability workers.All travellers are provided with a pack of two masks and hand sanitiser by the airlines.

Upon arrival aricept 5mg price into NSW all passengers from Victoria are. given masks if they left them on the planetemperature checkedasked relevant questions about their health. And their aricept 5mg price permit is checked to ensure it complies with the strict permit system.Anyone without a valid permit is referred to NSW Police and taken to the Special Health Accommodation to complete 14 days of quarantine.

Strict instructions and rules are in place for those going into ‘Home Isolation’ including. Recommended they be collected in a private car by family or friendsnot to use public transport to get hometo only sit in the back seat of a car with the windows open and air conditioning not on recirculationtold to wear their face masks and observe hand aricept 5mg price hygiene recommendations, andcalled to make sure they arrive home.NSW Health is provided the contact details of everyone who enters NSW from Victoria. NSW Police is conducting regular compliance checks for people told to go into ‘Home Isolation’ as well as responding to reports from the community in relation to suspected breaches.

Over the weekend, NSW Police visited almost 600 homes to check that those that were meant to be self-isolating were doing so aricept 5mg price. In addition to that, over the same period NSW Police received 374 calls to Crime Stoppers reporting suspected breaches of the health orders, the majority of which were for people suspected of not following self-isolation rules. ​Four new cases of COVID-19 were diagnosed in the 24 hours to 8pm last night, bringing the aricept 5mg price total number of cases in NSW to 3,929.Confirmed cases (including interstate residents in NSW health care facilities)3,929Deaths (in NSW from confirmed cases)54Total tests carried out​​2,338,155 There were 10,129 tests reported in the 24-hour reporting period, compared with 38,526 in the previous 24 hours.

While the latter number (38,526) appears to be a record, it includes 18,956 tests conducted by a private laboratory between 10 August and 2 September but not previously reported to NSW Health. All of these tests had negative results and there was no impact on the aricept 5mg price timely notification of results to any individual tested. The private facility has now resolved the issue.Of the four new cases to 8pm last night, one is a returned overseas traveller in hotel quarantine and three are locally acquired.All three locally acquired cases reported today, who are all healthcare workers, follow investigations in response to the healthcare worker case reported on 5 September who worked at the emergency departments (EDs) in Concord Repatriation General Hospital and Liverpool Hospital.Four healthcare workers across Concord and Liverpool EDs have now tested positive for COVID-19.The previously reported health care worker worked two shifts while potentially infectious.

These shifts aricept 5mg price took place at Concord ED on 1 September from 2pm until midnight and at Liverpool ED on 3 September from 8am to 6pm. The health care worker reported wearing full PPE for all patient interactions and a mask at other times. The case aricept 5mg price isolated and got tested immediately on developing symptoms.

The three new cases reported today are. A healthcare worker who worked at Concord ED on 1 September from 7pm until 7am and while potentially infectious Two healthcare workers who worked at Liverpool aricept 5mg price ED on 2, 3 and 4 September.The three newly reported health workers reported having no symptoms while at work and wore personal protective equipment while caring for patients.In addition overnight a new case has been reported in a visitor to a patient at Concord ED on 1 September. This case will be reported in tomorrow's numbers.Patients considered close contacts and all staff working at Concord and Liverpool EDs at the same times as the positive cases are being isolated and tested.

Investigations into the source of these infections are ongoing.Locations linked to known aricept 5mg price cases, advice on testing and isolation, and areas identified for increased testing can be found at NSW Government - Latest new and updates.​NSW Health is treating 83 COVID-19 cases, including seven in intensive care, four of whom are being ventilated. Most cases (84%) being treated by NSW Health are in non-acute, out-of-hospital care.COVID-19 continues to circulate in the community and we must all be vigilant. To help stop the spread aricept 5mg price of COVID-19.

If you are unwell, get tested and isolate right away – don't delay. Wash your aricept 5mg price hands regularly. Take hand sanitiser with you when you go out.

Keep your aricept 5mg price distance. Leave 1.5 metres between yourself and others. Wear a mask on aricept 5mg price public transport, ride share, taxis, shopping, places of worship and other places where you can't physically distance.

A full list of COVID-19 testing clinics is available or people can visit their GP.Confirmed cases to dateOverseas2,087Interstate acquired89Locally acquired – contact of a confirmed case and/or in a known cluster1,359Locally acquired – contact not identified394Under investigation0Counts reported for a particular day may vary over time with ongoing enhanced surveillance activities.Returned travellers in hotel quarantine to dateSymptomatic travell​ers tested4,939Found positive122Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 220,900Fo​und positive102Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 1033,715Found positive120Video update​The safe use of medicines within multicultural communities is the main focus of Multicultural Health Week this year.Research shows that people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds experience higher rates of adverse outcomes from poor medication management, including medication related hospital admissions.Consultations with key stakeholders identified that people from multicultural communities often find information related to their medicines complex and overwhelming. There is also a lack of translated resources to help communities support aricept 5mg price the safe use of medicines. In some communities, there are also cultural practices around sharing medicines with others.In her message at today’s online launch, Secretary for Health Ms Elizabeth Koff stressed the relevance of the Multicultural Week 2020 theme ‘Health Literacy and Safe Use of Medicines.“This year has been a challenging one for all of us especially with the COVID-19 pandemic.

We all need to work together to ensure our aricept 5mg price families, friends and loved ones are all safe. The theme is particularly important during this time. The week highlights the safe use of medicines and also the role your pharmacist has in supporting your health and safe aricept 5mg price use of medicines” Ms Koff said.“This initiative showcases our work in delivering the initiatives highlighted in NSW Plan for Healthy Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities 2019-2023.

The plan aims to ensure that people from culturally and linguistically diverse communities have equitable access to health care services that are culturally responsive, safe and high quality”.The Week also informs multicultural communities on the important role their pharmacist has in supporting their health and the safe use of medicine Key messages emphasise the importance of knowing:what your medicine is forhow to take your medicine safelythe active ingredient in your medicinethat the packaging of medicines that are the same may look differentIt is also important for people to understand how to manage their medicines during the Covid-19 pandemic.Lisa Woodland, Director, NSW Multicultural Health Communication Service (MHCS) encouraged all communities and health professionals to access the multilingual resources developed for Multicultural Health Week. These resources aricept 5mg price communicate the key messages about the safe use of medicines and the role of pharmacists in supporting people’s health.“This year, we have worked in close collaboration with expert health professionals, consumer representatives from multicultural backgrounds, and valued health service partners in developing multilingual resources in close to 30 languages which highlight the how people can take their medicines safely”, said Ms. Woodland.Resources for the week include a one-minute video which highlights the importance of talking with your pharmacist about your medicines available in 7 languages.

Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, aricept 5mg price Greek, Italian, Vietnamese and English. A one-page factsheet about using medicines safely - available in 29 languages, social media posts and radio advertisements in multiple languages.These resources are available to download for free from www.multiculturalhealthweek.com..

Aricept benefits

August 26, 2020Contact aricept benefits. Eric Stann, 573-882-3346, StannE@missouri.eduCheryl S. Rosenfeld is a professor of aricept benefits biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S.

Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.Scientists at the University of Missouri have discovered possible biological markers that they hope could one day help identify the presence of an opioid use disorder during human pregnancy.Cheryl S. Rosenfeld, an author on the study, said women often take opioids for pain regulation during pregnancy, including oxycodone, so it’s important to understand aricept benefits the effects of these drugs on the fetal placenta, a temporary organ that is essential in providing nutrients from a mother to her unborn child. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S.

Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of pregnant women aricept benefits diagnosed with an opioid use disorder has quadrupled between 1999 and 2014.“Many pregnant women are being prescribed opioids — in particular OxyContin, or oxycodone — to help with the pain they can experience during pregnancy, and this can lead to opioid use disorders,” Rosenfeld said. €œMany women also don’t want to admit to taking these drugs, and we know that children born from mothers who have taken opioids during pregnancy experience post-birth conditions, such as low-birth weight. But, so far no one has studied the potential ramifications of opioid use during fetal life aricept benefits.

Thus, we focused on the placenta because it is the main communication organ between the mother and her unborn child.”Previous studies examining these effects have used human cell cultures, but this is one of the first studies to use an animal model to examine how developmental exposure to these drugs affect the conceptus. In the study, Rosenfeld and her colleagues focused on how a mother’s use of oxycodone during her pregnancy can affect a mouse’s placenta. Mouse and aricept benefits human placentas are similar in many ways, including having placenta-specific cells in direct contact with a mother’s blood.

They found the use of this drug during pregnancy can negatively affect the placenta’s structure, such as reducing and killing cells that produce by-products needed for normal brain development. In addition, Rosenfeld said their findings show specific differences in genetic expressions between female and male aricept benefits placentas in response to maternal oxycodone exposure.“Our results show when mothers take oxycodone during pregnancy, it causes severe placental disruptions, including elevation of certain gene expressions,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe know what the normal levels should be and if there are any changes, then we know something might have triggered such effects.

For instance, in response to material oxycodone exposure, aricept benefits female placentas start increasing production of key genes essential in regulating material physiology. However, in male placentas, we see some of these same genes are reduced in expression. These expression patterns could be potential biomarkers for detecting exposure to oxycodone use.”Rosenfeld said by studying this in an animal model, it allows scientists to see these changes quicker than if they were completing a comparable study in people, because a pregnant mouse can give birth in 21 days compared to about nine months in aricept benefits people.“This also allows us to easily study other regions of the body, especially the brain of exposed offspring, that would be affected by taking these opioids,” Rosenfeld said.

€œWe can then use this information to help epidemiologists identify behaviors that people should be looking at in children whose mothers have taken these opioids.”Rosenfeld suggests that opioids should be added to other widely discussed warning factors during pregnancy, such as smoking and drinking alcohol. She said short-term use of opioids by pregnant women, such as someone who has kidney stones, aricept benefits might not cause much of an effect on their pregnancy, but that likely depends on when the mother is taking the drug while pregnant. Future plans for this study include analyzing how offspring are affected once they are born.Rosenfeld’s research is an example of an early step in translational medicine, or research that aims to improve human health by determining the relevance of animal science discoveries to people.

This research can provide the foundation for precision medicine, or personalized human health care. Precision medicine will be a key component of the NextGen Precision Health Initiative — the University of Missouri System’s top priority — by aricept benefits helping to accelerate medical breakthroughs for both patients in Missouri and beyond.The study, “Maternal oxycodone treatment causes pathophysiological changes in the mouse placenta,” was published in Placenta, the official journal of the International Federation of Placenta Associations. Other authors include Madison T.

Green, Rachel aricept benefits E. Martin, Jessica A. Kinkade, Robert R aricept benefits.

Schmidt, Nathan J. Bivens and aricept benefits Jiude Mao at MU. And Geetu Tuteja at Iowa State University.Funding was provided by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.First-of-its-kind study, based on a mouse model, finds living in a polluted environment could be comparable to eating a high-fat diet, leading to a pre-diabetic state CLEVELAND—Air pollution is the world’s leading environmental risk factor, and causes more than nine million deaths per year. New research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows air pollution may play a role in aricept benefits the development of cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Importantly, the effects were reversible with cessation of exposure.

Researchers found that air pollution was aricept benefits a “risk factor for a risk factor” that contributed to the common soil of other fatal problems like heart attack and stroke. Similar to how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can lead to disease, exposure to air pollution could be added to this risk factor list as well. “In this study, we created an environment that mimicked a polluted day in New Delhi or Beijing,” said Sanjay Rajagopalan, MD, first author on the study, Chief of Cardiovascular Medicine at University Hospitals Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Director of the aricept benefits Case Western Reserve University Cardiovascular Research Institute.

€œWe concentrated fine particles of air pollution, called PM2.5 (particulate matter component <. 2.5 microns) aricept benefits. Concentrated particles like this develop from human impact on the environment, such as automobile exhaust, power generation and other fossil fuels.” These particles have been strongly connected to risk factors for disease.

For example, cardiovascular effects aricept benefits of air pollution can lead to heart attack and stroke. The research team has shown exposure to air pollution can increase the likelihood of the same risk factors that lead to heart disease, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the mouse model study, three groups were observed.

A control group receiving clean filtered air, a group exposed to polluted air for 24 aricept benefits weeks, and a group fed a high-fat diet. Interestingly, the researchers found that being exposed to air pollution was comparable to eating a high-fat diet. Both the air pollution and high-fat diet groups showed insulin resistance aricept benefits and abnormal metabolism – just like one would see in a pre-diabetic state.

These changes were associated with changes in the epigenome, a layer of control that can masterfully turn on and turn off thousands of genes, representing a critical buffer in response to environmental factors. This study is the first-of-its-kind to compare genome-wide epigenetic changes in response to air pollution, compare and contrast these changes aricept benefits with that of eating an unhealthy diet, and examine the impact of air pollution cessation on these changes.“The good news is that these effects were reversible, at least in our experiments” added Dr. Rajagopalan.

€œOnce the air pollution was removed from the environment, the mice appeared healthier and the pre-diabetic state seemed to aricept benefits reverse.” Dr. Rajagopalan explains that if you live in a densely polluted environment, taking actions such as wearing an N95 mask, using portable indoor air cleaners, utilizing air conditioning, closing car windows while commuting, and changing car air filters frequently could all be helpful in staying healthy and limiting air pollution exposure.Next steps in this research involve meeting with a panel of experts, as well as the National Institutes of Health, to discuss conducting clinical trials that compare heart health and the level of air pollution in the environment. For example, if someone has a heart attack, should they be wearing an N95 mask or using a portable air filter at home during recovery?.

Dr aricept benefits. Rajagopalan and his team believe that it is important to address the environment as a population health risk factor and continue to diligently research these issues. The authors also note that these findings should encourage policymakers to enact measures aimed at reducing air pollution.Shyam Biswal, PhD, Professor in the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, is the joint senior author on aricept benefits the study.

Drs. Rajagopalan and Biswal are co-PIs on the aricept benefits NIH grant that supported this work.###Rajagopalan, S., Biswal, S., et al. €œMetabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility.” Journal of Clinical Investigation.

DOI. 10.1172/JCI137315. This work was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences TaRGET II Consortium grant U01ES026721, as well as grants R01ES015146 and R01ES019616..

August 26, aricept 5mg price 2020Contact. Eric Stann, 573-882-3346, StannE@missouri.eduCheryl S. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary aricept 5mg price Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S.

Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.Scientists at the University of Missouri have discovered possible biological markers that they hope could one day help identify the presence of an opioid use disorder during human pregnancy.Cheryl S. Rosenfeld, an author on the study, said women often take opioids for pain regulation aricept 5mg price during pregnancy, including oxycodone, so it’s important to understand the effects of these drugs on the fetal placenta, a temporary organ that is essential in providing nutrients from a mother to her unborn child. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S.

Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member aricept 5mg price in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of pregnant women diagnosed with an opioid use disorder has quadrupled between 1999 and 2014.“Many pregnant women are being prescribed opioids — in particular OxyContin, or oxycodone — to help with the pain they can experience during pregnancy, and this can lead to opioid use disorders,” Rosenfeld said. €œMany women also don’t want to admit to taking these drugs, and we know that children born from mothers who have taken opioids during pregnancy experience post-birth conditions, such as low-birth weight. But, so far no one has studied the potential aricept 5mg price ramifications of opioid use during fetal life.

Thus, we focused on the placenta because it is the main communication organ between the mother and her unborn child.”Previous studies examining these effects have used human cell cultures, but this is one of the first studies to use an animal model to examine how developmental exposure to these drugs affect the conceptus. In the study, Rosenfeld and her colleagues focused on how a mother’s use of oxycodone during her pregnancy can affect a mouse’s placenta. Mouse and human placentas are similar in many ways, including aricept 5mg price having placenta-specific cells in direct contact with a mother’s blood.

They found the use of this drug during pregnancy can negatively affect the placenta’s structure, such as reducing and killing cells that produce by-products needed for normal brain development. In addition, Rosenfeld said their findings show specific differences in genetic expressions between female and male placentas in response aricept 5mg price to maternal oxycodone exposure.“Our results show when mothers take oxycodone during pregnancy, it causes severe placental disruptions, including elevation of certain gene expressions,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe know what the normal levels should be and if there are any changes, then we know something might have triggered such effects.

For instance, in response to material oxycodone exposure, female placentas start increasing production of aricept 5mg price key genes essential in regulating material physiology. However, in male placentas, we see some of these same genes are reduced in expression. These expression patterns could be potential biomarkers for detecting exposure to oxycodone use.”Rosenfeld said by studying this in aricept 5mg price an animal model, it allows scientists to see these changes quicker than if they were completing a comparable study in people, because a pregnant mouse can give birth in 21 days compared to about nine months in people.“This also allows us to easily study other regions of the body, especially the brain of exposed offspring, that would be affected by taking these opioids,” Rosenfeld said.

€œWe can then use this information to help epidemiologists identify behaviors that people should be looking at in children whose mothers have taken these opioids.”Rosenfeld suggests that opioids should be added to other widely discussed warning factors during pregnancy, such as smoking and drinking alcohol. She said short-term use of opioids by pregnant women, such as someone who has kidney stones, might not cause much of an effect on their aricept 5mg price pregnancy, but that likely depends on when the mother is taking the drug while pregnant. Future plans for this study include analyzing how offspring are affected once they are born.Rosenfeld’s research is an example of an early step in translational medicine, or research that aims to improve human health by determining the relevance of animal science discoveries to people.

This research can provide the foundation for precision medicine, or personalized human health care. Precision medicine will be a key component of the NextGen Precision Health Initiative — the University of Missouri System’s top priority — by helping to accelerate medical breakthroughs for both patients in Missouri and beyond.The study, “Maternal oxycodone treatment aricept 5mg price causes pathophysiological changes in the mouse placenta,” was published in Placenta, the official journal of the International Federation of Placenta Associations. Other authors include Madison T.

Green, Rachel aricept 5mg price E. Martin, Jessica A. Kinkade, Robert R aricept 5mg price.

Schmidt, Nathan J. Bivens and aricept 5mg price Jiude Mao at MU. And Geetu Tuteja at Iowa State University.Funding was provided by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.First-of-its-kind study, based on a mouse model, finds living in a polluted environment could be comparable to eating a high-fat diet, leading to a pre-diabetic state CLEVELAND—Air pollution is the world’s leading environmental risk factor, and causes more than nine million deaths per year. New research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows air pollution may play a role in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, such as aricept 5mg price diabetes. Importantly, the effects were reversible with cessation of exposure.

Researchers found that air pollution was a “risk factor for a risk aricept 5mg price factor” that contributed to the common soil of other fatal problems like heart attack and stroke. Similar to how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can lead to disease, exposure to air pollution could be added to this risk factor list as well. “In this study, we created an environment that mimicked a polluted day in New Delhi or Beijing,” said Sanjay Rajagopalan, MD, first author on the study, Chief of Cardiovascular Medicine at University Hospitals Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Director of the Case Western Reserve University Cardiovascular Research aricept 5mg price Institute.

€œWe concentrated fine particles of air pollution, called PM2.5 (particulate matter component <. 2.5 microns) aricept 5mg price. Concentrated particles like this develop from human impact on the environment, such as automobile exhaust, power generation and other fossil fuels.” These particles have been strongly connected to risk factors for disease.

For example, aricept 5mg price cardiovascular effects of air pollution can lead to heart attack and stroke. The research team has shown exposure to air pollution can increase the likelihood of the same risk factors that lead to heart disease, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the mouse model study, three groups were observed.

A control group receiving clean filtered air, a group exposed to aricept 5mg price polluted air for 24 weeks, and a group fed a high-fat diet. Interestingly, the researchers found that being exposed to air pollution was comparable to eating a high-fat diet. Both the air pollution and high-fat diet groups showed insulin resistance and abnormal metabolism aricept 5mg price – just like one would see in a pre-diabetic state.

These changes were associated with changes in the epigenome, a layer of control that can masterfully turn on and turn off thousands of genes, representing a critical buffer in response to environmental factors. This study is the first-of-its-kind to compare genome-wide epigenetic changes in response to air pollution, compare and contrast these changes with that of eating an unhealthy diet, and examine the impact of air pollution cessation on aricept 5mg price these changes.“The good news is that these effects were reversible, at least in our experiments” added Dr. Rajagopalan.

€œOnce the air pollution was removed from the environment, aricept 5mg price the mice appeared healthier and the pre-diabetic state seemed to reverse.” Dr. Rajagopalan explains that if you live in a densely polluted environment, taking actions such as wearing an N95 mask, using portable indoor air cleaners, utilizing air conditioning, closing car windows while commuting, and changing car air filters frequently could all be helpful in staying healthy and limiting air pollution exposure.Next steps in this research involve meeting with a panel of experts, as well as the National Institutes of Health, to discuss conducting clinical trials that compare heart health and the level of air pollution in the environment. For example, if someone has a heart attack, should they be wearing an N95 mask or using a portable air filter at home during recovery?.

Dr. Rajagopalan and his team believe that it is important to address the environment as a population health risk factor and continue to diligently research these issues. The authors also note that these findings should encourage policymakers to enact measures aimed at reducing air pollution.Shyam Biswal, PhD, Professor in the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, is the joint senior author on the study.

Drs. Rajagopalan and Biswal are co-PIs on the NIH grant that supported this work.###Rajagopalan, S., Biswal, S., et al. €œMetabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility.” Journal of Clinical Investigation.

DOI. 10.1172/JCI137315. This work was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences TaRGET II Consortium grant U01ES026721, as well as grants R01ES015146 and R01ES019616..

Can you cut aricept in half

This story also ran on Fortune. This story can be can you cut aricept in half republished for free (details). Donella Pogue has trouble finding dentists in her rural area willing to accommodate her 21-year-old son, Justin, who is 6 feet, 8 inches tall, is on the autism spectrum and has difficulty sitting still when touched.And this summer, he had a cavity and his face swelled. Pogue, of Bristol, New York, reached out to the Eastman Institute for Oral Health in Rochester, which can you cut aricept in half offers teledentistry.Dr. Adela Planerova looked into his mouth from 28 miles away as Pogue pointed her laptop’s camera into her son’s mouth. Planerova determined they did not need can you cut aricept in half to make an emergency one-hour drive to her clinic.

Instead, the dentist prescribed antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and weeks later he had surgery.Teledentistry allows dental professionals like Planerova to remotely review records and diagnose patients over video. Some smile about its promise, seeing it as a way to become more can you cut aricept in half efficient, to reach the one-third of U.S. Adults who federal figures from 2017 estimate hadn’t seen a dentist in the previous year and to practice more safely during the pandemic.But others see it as lesser-quality care that’s cheaper for dental professionals to provide, allowing them to make more money. At the can you cut aricept in half same time, widespread adoption is hindered by issues such as spotty internet and insurance companies unwilling to reimburse for teledentistry procedures.

Don't Miss A Story Subscribe to KHN’s free Weekly Edition newsletter. Dr can you cut aricept in half. Christina Carter, an orthodontist in Morristown, New Jersey, said teledentistry has its place but shouldn’t replace time in the dental chair.“It cannot be used for a full diagnosis because we need other tools, like X-rays,” she said. €œWe have all tried to see things on our phone or even on a Zoom call, and there is can you cut aricept in half still just a different feel.”Still, as the pandemic curbs in-person visits and reduces dentists’ revenue, more dentists are seeking guidance from Dr.

Nathan Suter, a leading teledentistry advocate who owns the consulting company Access Teledentistry. Since March, he said, he’s done webinars for about 9,000 dental professionals, up from fewer than 1,000 in can you cut aricept in half the three years before the pandemic.Teledentistry providers trace the practice to 1994, when the Army launched a pilot program in which health care providers used an intra-oral camera to take photos of a patient’s mouth at a fort in Georgia and then sent them over the internet to a dental clinic at a fort 120 miles away.Over the next two decades, dentists in upstate New York and the San Francisco Bay Area led teledentistry pilot programs for underserved children, some of whom were in preschool and already had cavities. The number of children who completed the can you cut aricept in half prescribed dental treatment rose significantly.Supporters say teledentistry can help reach the 43% of rural Americans who lack access to dental care. Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program will pay for many dental procedures for those enrolled in those programs, but only 38% of dentists participate in those programs, according to the American Dental Association.

One reason can you cut aricept in half. Medicaid typically reimburses at a significantly lower rate than those of private insurance plans.Teledentistry could help dentists treat more patients and make more money a number of ways. If dentists can you cut aricept in half remotely review data captured by hygienists, they can see more patients. Because video appointments save them time, dentists then have room for the people “who need the more expensive services” while also focusing on preventive care, said Kirill Zaydenman, vice president of innovation for DentaQuest, an administrator of dental insurance and oral health care provider.Donella Pogue says that teledentistry was the best option for her 21-year-old son, Justin, when he had a cavity this summer that caused his face to swell.

Justin has special needs can you cut aricept in half and was able to see the dentist from the comfort of home. (Donella Pogue)But dentists have not widely adopted teledentistry — mainly because they’ve had difficulty getting insurers to pay for it, said Dr. Dorota Kopycka-Kedzierawski, can you cut aricept in half a Rochester dentist. That’s partly because of insurers’ concerns about fraud.

Dr. Paul Glassman, who started the Virtual Dental Home project to reach underserved preschool children in the Bay Area, considers those fears “completely incorrect.”“If you want to bill for something you didn’t do,” he said, “you can do that just as easily in an in-person environment as you can using teledentistry.”Since March, as the pandemic descended, most, if not all, private dental plans have been reimbursing for teledentistry, said Tom Meyers, vice president of public policy for America’s Health Insurance Plans, a trade organization. And all state Medicaid programs now reimburse for teledentistry in some form, Glassman said, though policies differ by state and some practices may not be covered in some places.But teledentistry isn’t reimbursable under Medicare. (Most dentistry isn’t.) Another obstacle to widespread adoption.

Some dentists and lawmakers connect teledentistry to companies offering at-home teeth aligners with little or no in-person contact with a dentist. Glassman has promoted teledentistry throughout the United States and reviewed proposed legislation or regulations in states such as Idaho, Massachusetts and Texas. He said he hears concerns from dentists about the lack of an in-person exam during which X-rays are taken. Such concerns are reflected in some legislation.SmileDirectClub, an at-home teeth-aligner company, has argued in statehouse testimony that in-person care is not always needed.

The company opposed a 2019 bill in Texas that aimed to improve access to dentistry in rural areas because it included a number of restrictions on teledentistry, including one that would have required an in-person dentist’s examination if a teledentistry provider treated that patient for more than 12 months.SmileDirect’s attorney argued at a hearing the rule “could interrupt the course of a patient’s treatment.”The measure failed.Proponents argue teledentistry isn’t just about making more money. Pogue, the New York woman, said it was the best option for her son with special needs.“He is really afraid of dentistry, so when he goes to see someone, he is really tense and really jumpy, so that’s another reason the teledentistry was nice was because he was in my bedroom doing it, so he was really comfortable,” said Pogue, 53, whose son is covered by Medicaid.A few weeks later, Justin did have to have surgery, which went “perfect,” his mom said.Some dentists say teledentistry faces particular stumbling blocks in rural areas. Dr. Mack Taylor, 36, a dentist who grew up in the small town of Dexter, Missouri, now practices in a health center just down the road.

Twenty years ago, he said, Dexter had eight dentists. Now there are only three.Technology is a major obstacle for local residents, many of whom lack reliable internet service. Taylor recently applied for a U.S. Department of Agriculture grant that would give him $26,500 to buy equipment so that, for example, a hygienist can take photos inside the mouths of nursing home residents and send them to Taylor to review.“It’s not like medicine where you can discuss someone’s ailments and have a good idea what’s going on,” Taylor said.

€œMaybe all you can tell me is ‘I have a broken tooth,’ but I can’t physically see what’s going on and prescribe the right treatment.” Related Topics COVID-19 Dental Health Telemedicine.

This story also ran on Fortune. This story can be republished for free (details). Donella Pogue has trouble finding dentists in her aricept 5mg price rural area willing to accommodate her 21-year-old son, Justin, who is 6 feet, 8 inches tall, is on the autism spectrum and has difficulty sitting still when touched.And this summer, he had a cavity and his face swelled. Pogue, of Bristol, New York, reached out to the Eastman Institute for Oral Health in Rochester, which offers aricept 5mg price teledentistry.Dr. Adela Planerova looked into his mouth from 28 miles away as Pogue pointed her laptop’s camera into her son’s mouth. Planerova determined they did aricept 5mg price not need to make an emergency one-hour drive to her clinic. Instead, the dentist prescribed antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and weeks later he had surgery.Teledentistry allows dental professionals like Planerova to remotely review records and diagnose patients over video.

Some smile about its promise, seeing it as a way to become more efficient, to reach the one-third of aricept 5mg price U.S. Adults who federal figures from 2017 estimate hadn’t seen a dentist in the previous year and to practice more safely during the pandemic.But others see it as lesser-quality care that’s cheaper for dental professionals to provide, allowing them to make more money. At the same time, widespread adoption is hindered by aricept 5mg price issues such as spotty internet and insurance companies unwilling to reimburse for teledentistry procedures. Don't Miss A Story Subscribe to KHN’s free Weekly Edition newsletter. Dr aricept 5mg price.

Christina Carter, an orthodontist in Morristown, New Jersey, said teledentistry has its place but shouldn’t replace time in the dental chair.“It cannot be used for a full diagnosis because we need other tools, like X-rays,” she said. €œWe have all tried to see things on our phone or even on a Zoom call, and there is still just a different feel.”Still, as the pandemic curbs in-person visits and reduces dentists’ revenue, more dentists are seeking aricept 5mg price guidance from Dr. Nathan Suter, a leading teledentistry advocate who owns the consulting company Access Teledentistry. Since March, he said, he’s done webinars for about 9,000 dental professionals, up from fewer than 1,000 in the three years before the pandemic.Teledentistry providers trace the practice to 1994, when the Army launched a pilot program in which health care providers used an intra-oral camera to take photos of a patient’s mouth at a fort in Georgia and then sent them over the aricept 5mg price internet to a dental clinic at a fort 120 miles away.Over the next two decades, dentists in upstate New York and the San Francisco Bay Area led teledentistry pilot programs for underserved children, some of whom were in preschool and already had cavities. The number of children who completed the prescribed dental treatment rose significantly.Supporters say teledentistry can aricept 5mg price help reach the 43% of rural Americans who lack access to dental care.

Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program will pay for many dental procedures for those enrolled in those programs, but only 38% of dentists participate in those programs, according to the American Dental Association. One reason aricept 5mg price. Medicaid typically reimburses at a significantly lower rate than those of private insurance plans.Teledentistry could help dentists treat more patients and make more money a number of ways. If dentists aricept 5mg price remotely review data captured by hygienists, they can see more patients. Because video appointments save them time, dentists then have room for the people “who need the more expensive services” while also focusing on preventive care, said Kirill Zaydenman, vice president of innovation for DentaQuest, an administrator of dental insurance and oral health care provider.Donella Pogue says that teledentistry was the best option for her 21-year-old son, Justin, when he had a cavity this summer that caused his face to swell.

Justin has special needs and was able to see the dentist from aricept 5mg price the comfort of home. (Donella Pogue)But dentists have not widely adopted teledentistry — mainly because they’ve had difficulty getting insurers to pay for it, said Dr. Dorota Kopycka-Kedzierawski, a Rochester dentist aricept 5mg price. That’s partly because of insurers’ concerns about fraud. Dr.

Paul Glassman, who started the Virtual Dental Home project to reach underserved preschool children in the Bay Area, considers those fears “completely incorrect.”“If you want to bill for something you didn’t do,” he said, “you can do that just as easily in an in-person environment as you can using teledentistry.”Since March, as the pandemic descended, most, if not all, private dental plans have been reimbursing for teledentistry, said Tom Meyers, vice president of public policy for America’s Health Insurance Plans, a trade organization. And all state Medicaid programs now reimburse for teledentistry in some form, Glassman said, though policies differ by state and some practices may not be covered in some places.But teledentistry isn’t reimbursable under Medicare. (Most dentistry isn’t.) Another obstacle to widespread adoption. Some dentists and lawmakers connect teledentistry to companies offering at-home teeth aligners with little or no in-person contact with a dentist. Glassman has promoted teledentistry throughout the United States and reviewed proposed legislation or regulations in states such as Idaho, Massachusetts and Texas.

He said he hears concerns from dentists about the lack of an in-person exam during which X-rays are taken. Such concerns are reflected in some legislation.SmileDirectClub, an at-home teeth-aligner company, has argued in statehouse testimony that in-person care is not always needed. The company opposed a 2019 bill in Texas that aimed to improve access to dentistry in rural areas because it included a number of restrictions on teledentistry, including one that would have required an in-person dentist’s examination if a teledentistry provider treated that patient for more than 12 months.SmileDirect’s attorney argued at a hearing the rule “could interrupt the course of a patient’s treatment.”The measure failed.Proponents argue teledentistry isn’t just about making more money. Pogue, the New York woman, said it was the best option for her son with special needs.“He is really afraid of dentistry, so when he goes to see someone, he is really tense and really jumpy, so that’s another reason the teledentistry was nice was because he was in my bedroom doing it, so he was really comfortable,” said Pogue, 53, whose son is covered by Medicaid.A few weeks later, Justin did have to have surgery, which went “perfect,” his mom said.Some dentists say teledentistry faces particular stumbling blocks in rural areas. Dr.

Mack Taylor, 36, a dentist who grew up in the small town of Dexter, Missouri, now practices in a health center just down the road. Twenty years ago, he said, Dexter had eight dentists. Now there are only three.Technology is a major obstacle for local residents, many of whom lack reliable internet service. Taylor recently applied for a U.S. Department of Agriculture grant that would give him $26,500 to buy equipment so that, for example, a hygienist can take photos inside the mouths of nursing home residents and send them to Taylor to review.“It’s not like medicine where you can discuss someone’s ailments and have a good idea what’s going on,” Taylor said.

€œMaybe all you can tell me is ‘I have a broken tooth,’ but I can’t physically see what’s going on and prescribe the right treatment.” Related Topics COVID-19 Dental Health Telemedicine.

Side effects of aricept medication

October is Mental Health Awareness Month and World side effects of aricept medication Mental Health Day takes place on 10 October 2020. This year, the COVID-19 pandemic has added a new dimension to concerns regarding mental health in our communities. Across the globe stories continue to emerge of people’s experiences of anxiety, fear and depression due to the uncertainty and stress brought on by the virus.1–3 Job losses, financial and housing side effects of aricept medication insecurity, the challenges of working from home, home schooling, restricted access to health and social care services and social isolation coupled with reduced support and contact with family and friends have all impacted people’s well-being. There is particular concern about the mental health of healthcare workers during this difficult time.While most healthcare workers are resilient to the long-term effects of this period of stress and anxiety, there is the added worry about scarce resources, lack of cure or effective treatment options, isolation from family, coping with patient suffering and deaths and the moral and ethical impact of decisions as to who will receive acute care.

These factors have significant potential for negative repercussions on the mental health and well-being of healthcare staff.4 5 There have been reports of high levels of stress, depression and even suicides,6 and long-term effects include a higher risk for post-traumatic stress disorder or moral injury.5Healthcare organisations need to plan for the inevitable consequence side effects of aricept medication of this pandemic and ensure that resources are in place for their workers. Screening for mental health issues and treatment, including counselling, should be made available. In addition, nurses and other healthcare staff should be encouraged to reflect on their experiences and consider how to implement self-care strategies that will enhance their well-being side effects of aricept medication. This includes staying informed of the current data and information and being aware of the risks to themselves and others while caring for patients with the virus.

By monitoring and enacting strategies to reduce stress and develop support systems, staff can minimise longer-term impacts.4Whether organisational support and self-care monitoring have achieved better mental health outcomes for healthcare workers is, as yet, unknown. Research across the globe is underway not only related to the virus itself but also to the side effects of aricept medication mental health consequences of the pandemic. We do not yet know the extent of the issues or how best to support healthcare providers. In order to better understand the issues and to support nurses at this time, evidence-based side effects of aricept medication nursing will focus our social media to mental health issues during the month of October.

We will highlight and share relevant resources and information and encourage discussion of the key challenges facing healthcare workers.During October, we will showcase the experiences of four key groups—patients, nurses, students and informal carers and families. Be sure to log into evidence-based nursing each week for the following side effects of aricept medication blogs:October 4. Impact of COVID-19 on patient mental health.October 11. Impact of COVID-19 on nurses’ mental health and.Twitter Chat on Wednesday October 14 at 20:00 UK time.Oct side effects of aricept medication.

18. Impact of COVID-19 on student nursing.Oct. 25. Impact of COVID-19 on informal carers and families.A PhD is a globally recognised postgraduate degree and typically the highest degree programme awarded by a University, with students usually required to expand the boundaries of knowledge by undertaking original research.

The purpose of PhD programmes of study is to nurture, support and facilitate doctoral students to undertake independent research to expected academic and research standards, culminating in a substantial thesis and examined by viva voce. In this paper—the first of two linked Research Made Simple articles—we explore what the foundations of a high-quality PhD are, and how a Doctoral candidate can develop a study which is successful, original and impactful.Foundations of a ‘good’ PhD studySupervision and supportCentral to the development and completion of a good PhD is the supervisory relationship between the student and supervisor. The supervisor guides the student by directing them to resources and training to ensure continuous learning, provides opportunity to engage with experts in the field, and facilitates the development of critical thinking through questioning and providing constructive criticism.1The support needs of students will be different, so a flexible yet quality assured approach to PhD research training is required. A good supervisory team (usually includes at least two postdoctoral academics) provide experienced guidance and mentorship and will offer students academic support, with regular meetings and timely feedback on written submissions, will assist the student to develop a peer network and help them access research communities relative to their field.

Effective supervision has beneficial outcomes for students, including encouraging a positive work ethic and influencing engagement in a stimulating environment, allowing students to pursue their own ideas with educated encouragement. The quality of the supervisory relationship can impact greatly on the PhD experience and ultimately sets the student on the road to producing excellent Doctoral work.1An environment that promotes personal and professional development is further aided by positive peer interactions. If students feel part of a community and have contact with others also working on doctoral studies, there is the scope for peer compassion and understanding during both challenging and rewarding periods. Students who access personal and professional support and guidance through mentoring models during their studies are more likely to succeed.

These models include one-to-one peer mentoring or activities for example journal discussion or methods learning groups. Often, groups of students naturally come together and give each other support and advice about research process expectations and challenges, and offer friendship, and guidance.2 Given the usefulness of different types of mentoring models, all can create a supportive and collaborative environment within a PhD programme of study, to minimise working in isolation and enable students to achieve their greatest potential.Characteristics of a good study. Originality and theoretical underpinningA PhD should make an original contribution to knowledge. Originality can be achieved through the study design, the nature or outcomes of the knowledge synthesis, or the implications for research and/or practice.3 Disciplinary variation, however, influences the assessment of originality.

For example, originality in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects is often inferred if the work is published/publishable, in comparison to intellectual originality in the social sciences.4 Although PhD originality assumes different nuances in different contexts, there is a general acceptance across disciplines that there should be evidence of the following within the thesis:An interplay between old and new—any claims of originality are developed from existing knowledge and practices.There are degrees of originality, relating to more than one aspect of the thesis.Any claims for originality are accompanied by clear articulation of significance.A good PhD should be also underpinned by theoretical and/or conceptual frameworks (that include philosophical and methodological models) that give clarity to the approach, structure and vision of the study.5 These theoretical and conceptual frameworks can explain why the study is pertinent and how the research addresses gaps in the literature.6 Table 1 provides a distinction of what construes theoretical and conceptual frameworks.View this table:Table 1 Characteristics of theoretical and conceptual frameworks7Theoretical/conceptual frameworks must align with the research question/aims, and the student must be able to articulate how conceptual/theoretical framework were chosen. Key points for consideration include:Are the research questions/aim and objectives well defined?. What theory/theories/concepts are being operationalised?. How are the theories/concepts related?.

Are the ontological and epistemological perspectives clearly conveyed and how do they relate to theories and concepts outlined?. What are the potential benefits and limitations of the theories and concepts outlined?. Are the ways the theories/concepts are outlined and being used original?. A PhD thesis (and demonstrable in viva) must be able to offer cohesion between the choice of research methods that stems from the conceptual/theoretical framework, the related ontological and epistemological decisions, the theoretical perspective and the chosen methodology (table 2).

PhD students must be able to articulate the methodological decisions made and be critical of methods employed to answer their research questions.View this table:Table 2 Relationship between research paradigms, perspectives, methodologies and methods.8 9ConclusionIn summary, we offer considerations of what the foundations of a good PhD should be. We have considered some of the key ingredients of quality PhD supervision, support and research processes and explored how these will contribute to the development of a study that leads to student success and which makes a valuable contribution to the evidence base. In the next paper, we will look in more detail at the assessment of the PhD through the submission of a thesis and an oral viva..

October is Mental Health aricept 5mg price Awareness Month and World Mental Health Day takes place on 10 October 2020. This year, the COVID-19 pandemic has added a new dimension to concerns regarding mental health in our communities. Across the globe stories continue to emerge of people’s experiences of anxiety, fear and depression due to aricept 5mg price the uncertainty and stress brought on by the virus.1–3 Job losses, financial and housing insecurity, the challenges of working from home, home schooling, restricted access to health and social care services and social isolation coupled with reduced support and contact with family and friends have all impacted people’s well-being. There is particular concern about the mental health of healthcare workers during this difficult time.While most healthcare workers are resilient to the long-term effects of this period of stress and anxiety, there is the added worry about scarce resources, lack of cure or effective treatment options, isolation from family, coping with patient suffering and deaths and the moral and ethical impact of decisions as to who will receive acute care. These factors have significant potential for negative repercussions on the mental health and well-being of healthcare staff.4 5 There have been reports of high levels of stress, depression and even suicides,6 and long-term effects include a higher risk for post-traumatic stress disorder or moral injury.5Healthcare organisations need to aricept 5mg price plan for the inevitable consequence of this pandemic and ensure that resources are in place for their workers.

Screening for mental health issues and treatment, including counselling, should be made available. In addition, nurses aricept 5mg price and other healthcare staff should be encouraged to reflect on their experiences and consider how to implement self-care strategies that will enhance their well-being. This includes staying informed of the current data and information and being aware of the risks to themselves and others while caring for patients with the virus. By monitoring and enacting strategies to reduce stress and develop support systems, staff can minimise longer-term impacts.4Whether organisational support and self-care monitoring have achieved better mental health outcomes for healthcare workers is, as yet, unknown. Research across the globe is underway not only related to the virus itself but also to aricept 5mg price the mental health consequences of the pandemic.

We do not yet know the extent of the issues or how best to support healthcare providers. In order to better understand the issues and aricept 5mg price to support nurses at this time, evidence-based nursing will focus our social media to mental health issues during the month of October. We will highlight and share relevant resources and information and encourage discussion of the key challenges facing healthcare workers.During October, we will showcase the experiences of four key groups—patients, nurses, students and informal carers and families. Be sure to log into evidence-based nursing each week for aricept 5mg price the following blogs:October 4. Impact of COVID-19 on patient mental health.October 11.

Impact of COVID-19 on nurses’ mental health and.Twitter Chat on Wednesday October aricept 5mg price 14 at 20:00 UK time.Oct. 18. Impact of COVID-19 on student nursing.Oct. 25. Impact of COVID-19 on informal carers and families.A PhD is a globally recognised postgraduate degree and typically the highest degree programme awarded by a University, with students usually required to expand the boundaries of knowledge by undertaking original research.

The purpose of PhD programmes of study is to nurture, support and facilitate doctoral students to undertake independent research to expected academic and research standards, culminating in a substantial thesis and examined by viva voce. In this paper—the first of two linked Research Made Simple articles—we explore what the foundations of a high-quality PhD are, and how a Doctoral candidate can develop a study which is successful, original and impactful.Foundations of a ‘good’ PhD studySupervision and supportCentral to the development and completion of a good PhD is the supervisory relationship between the student and supervisor. The supervisor guides the student by directing them to resources and training to ensure continuous learning, provides opportunity to engage with experts in the field, and facilitates the development of critical thinking through questioning and providing constructive criticism.1The support needs of students will be different, so a flexible yet quality assured approach to PhD research training is required. A good supervisory team (usually includes at least two postdoctoral academics) provide experienced guidance and mentorship and will offer students academic support, with regular meetings and timely feedback on written submissions, will assist the student to develop a peer network and help them access research communities relative to their field. Effective supervision has beneficial outcomes for students, including encouraging a positive work ethic and influencing engagement in a stimulating environment, allowing students to pursue their own ideas with educated encouragement.

The quality of the supervisory relationship can impact greatly on the PhD experience and ultimately sets the student on the road to producing excellent Doctoral work.1An environment that promotes personal and professional development is further aided by positive peer interactions. If students feel part of a community and have contact with others also working on doctoral studies, there is the scope for peer compassion and understanding during both challenging and rewarding periods. Students who access personal and professional support and guidance through mentoring models during their studies are more likely to succeed. These models include one-to-one peer mentoring or activities for example journal discussion or methods learning groups. Often, groups of students naturally come together and give each other support and advice about research process expectations and challenges, and offer friendship, and guidance.2 Given the usefulness of different types of mentoring models, all can create a supportive and collaborative environment within a PhD programme of study, to minimise working in isolation and enable students to achieve their greatest potential.Characteristics of a good study.

Originality and theoretical underpinningA PhD should make an original contribution to knowledge. Originality can be achieved through the study design, the nature or outcomes of the knowledge synthesis, or the implications for research and/or practice.3 Disciplinary variation, however, influences the assessment of originality. For example, originality in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects is often inferred if the work is published/publishable, in comparison to intellectual originality in the social sciences.4 Although PhD originality assumes different nuances in different contexts, there is a general acceptance across disciplines that there should be evidence of the following within the thesis:An interplay between old and new—any claims of originality are developed from existing knowledge and practices.There are degrees of originality, relating to more than one aspect of the thesis.Any claims for originality are accompanied by clear articulation of significance.A good PhD should be also underpinned by theoretical and/or conceptual frameworks (that include philosophical and methodological models) that give clarity to the approach, structure and vision of the study.5 These theoretical and conceptual frameworks can explain why the study is pertinent and how the research addresses gaps in the literature.6 Table 1 provides a distinction of what construes theoretical and conceptual frameworks.View this table:Table 1 Characteristics of theoretical and conceptual frameworks7Theoretical/conceptual frameworks must align with the research question/aims, and the student must be able to articulate how conceptual/theoretical framework were chosen. Key points for consideration include:Are the research questions/aim and objectives well defined?. What theory/theories/concepts are being operationalised?.

How are the theories/concepts related?. Are the ontological and epistemological perspectives clearly conveyed and how do they relate to theories and concepts outlined?. What are the potential benefits and limitations of the theories and concepts outlined?. Are the ways the theories/concepts are outlined and being used original?. A PhD thesis (and demonstrable in viva) must be able to offer cohesion between the choice of research methods that stems from the conceptual/theoretical framework, the related ontological and epistemological decisions, the theoretical perspective and the chosen methodology (table 2).

PhD students must be able to articulate the methodological decisions made and be critical of methods employed to answer their research questions.View this table:Table 2 Relationship between research paradigms, perspectives, methodologies and methods.8 9ConclusionIn summary, we offer considerations of what the foundations of a good PhD should be. We have considered some of the key ingredients of quality PhD supervision, support and research processes and explored how these will contribute to the development of a study that leads to student success and which makes a valuable contribution to the evidence base. In the next paper, we will look in more detail at the assessment of the PhD through the submission of a thesis and an oral viva..

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