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Rheumatic feverIs there any disease group more ’deserving’ of a get actonel place at the neglected tropical disease table than the post streptococcal illnesses, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever?. These dropped off the radar of most high income countries in the second half of the 20th century but have continued to smoulder, largely unchecked, in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The burden get actonel is frightening.

300 000 incident cases per year and 30 million prevalent cases, the damage from chronic carditis resulting, in so many, in heart failure and stroke.There are a number of approaches. Primary prevention (vaccination) remains a work in progress. Secondary prevention (prompt treatment) is largely dependent on get actonel diagnosis which depends on a positive throat swab or serological evidence in the form of the ASOT and ADB titres and this is where the complexities begin.

Tertiary prevention, early diagnosis of heart disease by echo screening and prophylaxis has promise but is gestational. The range of population norms depends on exposure and threshold levels in one country might not be applicable elsewhere inevitably resulting get actonel in false positive and false negative results. Okello et al establishes a range of ASOT levels in urban Uganda and shows much higher mean titres than other comparable populations.

Joshua Osowicki and Andrew Steer discuss the implications of these findings in the context of a multipronged approach to rheumatic fever during the wait for the long yearned-for group A streptococcal vaccine. See pages 825 and 813Febrile neutropaeniaOncological treatment is prolonged get actonel and draining for both a child and their family. A major contributor to the fatigue is the need for recurrent admissions for chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia (FN).

Though evidence of benefit is scanty to non-existent, it is traditional to keep children in hospital on IV antibiotic treatment for get actonel several days irrespective of culture results and clinical appearance. Sereveratne and colleagues assess the safety of a more flexible approach in a tertiary oncology centre, allowing discharge at 48 hours, even if culture positive as long as ‘wellness’ and social criteria were metIn total, 179 episodes of FN were reviewed from 47 patients. In 70% (125/179) of episodes, patients were discharged safely once 48 hours microbiology results were available, with only 5.6% (7/125) resulting in readmission in the 48 hours following discharge.

There were get actonel no deaths from sepsis. This approach won’t work for all episodes of febrile neutropenia, but, probably applies to the majority and the differences to quality of life if adopted widely are hard to overstate. See page 881Infectious disease mortalityTrends in infectious get actonel disease mirror changes in vaccination programmes, society and the environment, diagnostics and microbiological epidemiology.

Ferreras-Antolin examines Public Health England data over two eras, 2003 to 2005 and 2013 to 2015. In the latter period, there were 5088 death registrations recorded in children aged 28 days to <15 years in England and Wales (17.6 deaths/100 000 children annually) and, in the first 6897 (23.9/100 000). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.74 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.77) fell significantly get actonel and the stories behind these data are revealing.

There is little doubt that PCV vaccination has played a role though, in this series, it is too early to assess the contribution of the (2015 launched) meningococcal B programme. The raw data also mask the rise of (the still non-vaccine preventable) invasive group A streptococcal disease (one of the arguments for varicella vaccination) and the future role for Group B streptococcal immunisation. Influenza deaths were rare and, despite a reduction between the eras was not a major get actonel explanator.

See page 857Fibre and constipationOne of the more entrenched tenets of child nutrition folklore is that of the association between fibre and constipation. In a re-analysis of data from the latest NICE get actonel review, information from the ALSPAC cohort (in which stool consistency pre-weaning was established) and monozygotic twin studies, Tappin persuasively argues (through triangulation analysis) that fibre is the result of and confounded by parental response to hard stool and is neither a cause of constipation or a treatment. Laxation (as advocated) should be the first line and used early to prevent the all too familiar chronic issues with undertreatment.

Soiling. Loss of self get actonel esteem. Poor mood and loss of appetite.

See page 864Drowning and autismDrowning is a major get actonel cause of global child mortality, particularly in low and middle income country settings. Interventions such as fencing off access and swimming lessons have partially ameliorated the risk, but progress has been slow and awareness probably still the single best form of prophylaxis. Autistic children represent a high risk group due to their inherent communication and behavioural issues.

Peden assesses the association between autism and drowning in Australia from coronial certificates between get actonel 2002 and 2018. Of the 667 cases of drowning among 0–19 year olds (with known history), 27 (4%) had an ASD diagnosis, relative risk 2.85 (95% CI 0.61 to 13.24). Children and adolescents with ASD were significantly more likely to drown when compared with those without get actonel ASD.

If aged 5–9 years (44.4% of ASD cases. 13.3% of non ASD cases). In a lake or dam (25.9% vs 10.0%) and during winter get actonel (37.0% vs 13.1%).

These sobering figures are likely to be an underestimate as the diagnosis of ASD is often not made until the age of 5 years, past the highest drowning risk preschool group. See page 869.

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Lauren Gambill, MDPediatrician, AustinMember, Texas Medical Association (TMA) Committee on Child alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis and Adolescent HealthExecutive Board Member, Texas Pediatric SocietyDoctors are community leaders. This role has become even more important during the COVID-19 pandemic. As patients navigate our new reality, they are looking to us to determine what is safe, how to protect their families, and the alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis future of their health care. As more Texans lose their jobs, their health insurance, or even their homes, it is crucial that Texas receives the resources it needs to uphold our social safety net.

The U.S. Census helps determine funding for those resources, and that is why it is of the upmost importance that each and every alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis Texan, no matter address, immigration status, or age, respond to the 2020 U.S. Census. The deadline alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis has been cut short one month and now closes Sept.

30.COVID-19 has only increased the importance of completing the census to help our local communities and economies recover. The novel coronavirus has inflicted unprecedented strain on patients and exacerbated inequality as more people are out of work and are many in need of help with food, health care, housing, and more. Schools also have been stretched thin, alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis with teachers scrambling to teach students online. Yet, the amount of federal funding Texas has available today to help weather this emergency was driven in part by the census responses made a decade ago.

Getting an accurate count in 2020 will help Texans prepare for the decade to follow, the first few years of which most certainly will be spent rebuilding from the pandemic’s fallout. Therefore, it is vital that all Texans be counted.The federal alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis dollars Texas receives generally depends on our population. A George Washington University study recently found that even a 1% undercount can lead to a $300 million loss in funding.Take Medicaid, for example. Federal funds pay for 60% of the state’s program, which provides health coverage for two out of five Texas children, one in three individuals with disabilities, alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis and 53% of all births.

The complicated formula used to calculate the federal portion of this funding depends on accurate census data. If Texas’ population is undercounted, Texans may appear better off financially than they really are, resulting in Texas getting fewer federal Medicaid dollars. If that happens, lawmakers will have to make up the difference, with cuts in services, program eligibility, or physician and provider payments, any of which are potentially detrimental.The census data alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis also is key to funding other aspects of a community’s social safety net:Health careThe Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) provides low-cost health insurance to children whose parents make too much to qualify for Medicaid, but not enough to afford quality coverage. Like Medicaid, how much money the federal government reimburses the state for the program depends in part on the census.Maternal and child health programs that promote public health and help ensure children are vaccinated relies on data from the census.

Texas also uses this federal funding to study and respond to maternal mortality and perinatal depression.Food and alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis housing As unemployment rises and families struggle financially, many live with uncertainty as to where they will find their next meal. Already, one in seven Texans experiences food insecurity, and 20% of Texas children experience hunger. Food insecurity is rising in Texas as the pandemic continues. The Central Texas Food Bank alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis saw a 206% rise in clients in March.

Funding for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and school lunch programs are both determined by the census. Funding for local housing programs also is calculated via the census. An accurate count will help ensure alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis that people who lose their homes during this economic crisis have better hope of finding shelter while our communities recover. Homelessness is closely connected with declines in overall physical and mental health.Childcare and educationAs we navigate the new reality brought on by coronavirus, more parents are taking on roles as breadwinner, parent, teacher, and caretaker.

This stress highlights the desperate need for affordable childcare alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis. The census determines funding for programs like Head Start that provide comprehensive early childhood education to low-income families. The good news is you still have time to complete the census. Visit 2020census.gov alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis to take it.

It takes less than five minutes to complete. Then talk to your family, neighbors, and colleagues about doing the alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis same. If you are wondering who counts, the answer is everyone, whether it’s a newborn baby, child in foster care, undocumented immigrant, or an individual experiencing homelessness.Completing the census is one of the best things that you can do for the health of your community, especially during the pandemic. Thank you for helping Texas heal and for supporting these essential safety net programs.(L to R).

UTHSA medical students Swetha Maddipudi, Brittany Hansen, Charles Wang, Carson Cortino, faculty advisor Kaparaboyna Kumar, MD, Ryan Wealther, Sidney Akabogu, Irma Ruiz, and Frank Jung pose with alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis the TMA Be Wise Immunize banner. Photo courtesy by Ryan WealtherRyan WealtherMedical Student, UT Health San Antonio Long School of MedicineStudent Member, Texas Medical AssociationEditor’s Note. August is National Immunization Awareness Month. This article is part of a Me&My Doctor series highlighting and promoting the use of alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis vaccinations.“Can the flu shot give you the flu?.

€â€œIs it dangerous for pregnant women to get a flu shot?. €â€œCan vaccines alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis cause autism?. €These were questions women at Alpha Home, a residential substance abuse rehabilitation center in San Antonio, asked my fellow medical students and me during a flu vaccine discussion. It is easy to see why these questions were asked, as vaccine misinformation is common today.UTHSA medical student Frank Jing (left) gets a vaccine fromKaparaboyna Kumar, MD, (right).Photo courtesy of Ryan Wealther“No” is the answer to all the questions.

These were exactly the types of myths we set out to dispel at our vaccination drive.UT Health San Antonio Long School of Medicine medical students alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis (under the supervision of Kaparaboyna Ashok Kumar, MD, faculty advisor for the Texas Medical Association Medical Student Section at UT Health San Antonio) hosted the vaccine drive at Alpha Home with the support of TMA’s Be Wise – Immunize℠ program, a public health initiative that aims to increase vaccinations and vaccine awareness through shot clinics and education. Our program consisted of a vaccination drive and an interactive, educational presentation that addressed influenza, common flu shot questions, and general vaccine myths. The Alpha Home residents could ask us questions during the program.We were interested to alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis see if our educational program could answer Alpha Home residents’ questions about vaccinations and allay their hesitations about getting a flu vaccination. To gauge this, we created a brief survey.(Before I discuss the results of the survey, I should define vaccine hesitancy.

Vaccine hesitancy is a concept defined by the World Health Organization. It relates to when patients do not vaccinate despite having alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis access to vaccines. Vaccine hesitancy is a problem because it prevents individuals from receiving their vaccinations. That makes them more susceptible to getting sick from vaccine-preventable diseases.)We surveyed the residents’ opinions about vaccinations before and after our educational program.

While opinions about shots improved alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis with each survey question, we saw the most significant attitude change reflected in answers to the questions “I am concerned that vaccinations might not be safe,” and “How likely are you to receive a flu shot today?. € We had informed the residents and improved their understanding and acceptance of immunizations.Post-survey results show more residents at the Alpha Home shifted to more positive attitudes about vaccines, after learning more about their effectiveness by trusted members of the medical community. Graph by Ryan alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis WealtherWhy is this important?. First, our findings confirm what we already knew.

Education by a trusted member of the medical community can effect change. In fact, it is widely alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis known that physician recommendation of vaccination is one of the most critical factors affecting whether patients receive an influenza vaccination. Perhaps some added proof to this is that a few of the Alpha Home residents were calling me “Dr. Truth” by the end of the evening.Second, our findings add to our understanding alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis of adult vaccine hesitancy.

This is significant because most of what we know about vaccine hesitancy is limited to parental attitudes toward their children’s vaccinations. Some parents question shots for their children, and many of the most deadly diseases we vaccinate against are given in childhood, including polio, tetanus, measles, and whooping cough shots. However, adults need some vaccinations as alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis well, like the yearly influenza vaccine. After taking part in the UTHSA educational program, more residents at the Alpha Home shared more willingness to receive the flu vaccine.

Graph by Ryan WealtherAnother reason improving attitudes is important is that receiving a flu shot is even more timely during the COVID-19 pandemic because it decreases illnesses and conserves health care resources. Thousands of people each year are hospitalized from the flu, and with hospitals filling up with coronavirus patients, we could avoid adding dangerously ill flu patients to the alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis mix. Lastly, these findings are important because once a COVID-19 vaccination becomes available, more people might be willing to receive it if their overall attitude toward immunizations is positive. Though the COVID-19 vaccine is still in development, it is not immune to alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis vaccine hesitancy.

Recent polls have indicated up to one-third of Americans would not receive a COVID-19 vaccine even if it were accessible and affordable. Work is already being done to try to raise awareness and acceptance. In addition, misinformation about the COVID vaccine is circulating alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis widely. (Someone recently asked me if the COVID vaccine will implant a microchip in people, and I have seen the same myth circulating on social media.

It will not.) This myth, however, illustrates the need for health care professionals to alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis answer patients’ questions and to assuage their concerns.Vaccines work best when many people in a community receive them, and vaccine hesitancy can diminish vaccination rates, leaving people who can't get certain vaccines susceptible to these vaccine-preventable diseases. For example, babies under 6 months of age should not receive a flu shot, so high community vaccination rates protect these babies from getting sick with the flu. Our educational program at Alpha Home is just one example of how health care professionals can increase awareness and acceptance of shots. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, we need to ensure children and adults receive their vaccinations as recommended alternatives to actonel for osteoporosis by their physician and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

I encourage readers who have questions about the vaccinations they or their child may need to talk with their physician. As health care professionals, we’re more than happy to answer your questions..

Lauren Gambill, MDPediatrician, AustinMember, Texas Medical Association (TMA) Committee on Child and Adolescent HealthExecutive Board Member, Texas Pediatric SocietyDoctors get actonel are community leaders. This role has become even more important during the COVID-19 pandemic. As patients navigate our new reality, they are looking to us to determine what is safe, how to protect get actonel their families, and the future of their health care.

As more Texans lose their jobs, their health insurance, or even their homes, it is crucial that Texas receives the resources it needs to uphold our social safety net. The U.S. Census helps determine funding for those resources, and that is why it is of the upmost importance that each and every Texan, no matter address, immigration status, or age, respond to the 2020 U.S get actonel.

Census. The deadline has been cut short one month get actonel and now closes Sept. 30.COVID-19 has only increased the importance of completing the census to help our local communities and economies recover.

The novel coronavirus has inflicted unprecedented strain on patients and exacerbated inequality as more people are out of work and are many in need of help with food, health care, housing, and more. Schools also have been stretched thin, with teachers scrambling to teach students online get actonel. Yet, the amount of federal funding Texas has available today to help weather this emergency was driven in part by the census responses made a decade ago.

Getting an accurate count in 2020 will help Texans prepare for the decade to follow, the first few years of which most certainly will be spent rebuilding from the pandemic’s fallout. Therefore, it is vital that all Texans be get actonel counted.The federal dollars Texas receives generally depends on our population. A George Washington University study recently found that even a 1% undercount can lead to a $300 million loss in funding.Take Medicaid, for example.

Federal funds pay for 60% of the state’s program, which provides health coverage for two out of five Texas children, one in three individuals with disabilities, and 53% of all births get actonel. The complicated formula used to calculate the federal portion of this funding depends on accurate census data. If Texas’ population is undercounted, Texans may appear better off financially than they really are, resulting in Texas getting fewer federal Medicaid dollars.

If that happens, lawmakers will have to make up the difference, with cuts in services, program eligibility, or get actonel physician and provider payments, any of which are potentially detrimental.The census data also is key to funding other aspects of a community’s social safety net:Health careThe Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) provides low-cost health insurance to children whose parents make too much to qualify for Medicaid, but not enough to afford quality coverage. Like Medicaid, how much money the federal government reimburses the state for the program depends in part on the census.Maternal and child health programs that promote public health and help ensure children are vaccinated relies on data from the census. Texas also uses this federal funding to study and respond to maternal mortality and get actonel perinatal depression.Food and housing As unemployment rises and families struggle financially, many live with uncertainty as to where they will find their next meal.

Already, one in seven Texans experiences food insecurity, and 20% of Texas children experience hunger. Food insecurity is rising in Texas as the pandemic continues. The Central Texas Food Bank saw a 206% rise in clients in March get actonel.

Funding for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and school lunch programs are both determined by the census. Funding for local housing programs also is calculated via the census. An accurate count will help ensure that people who lose their homes during this economic crisis have better hope of finding shelter while our get actonel communities recover.

Homelessness is closely connected with declines in overall physical and mental health.Childcare and educationAs we navigate the new reality brought on by coronavirus, more parents are taking on roles as breadwinner, parent, teacher, and caretaker. This stress highlights the desperate need for affordable get actonel childcare. The census determines funding for programs like Head Start that provide comprehensive early childhood education to low-income families.

The good news is you still have time to complete the census. Visit 2020census.gov get actonel to take it. It takes less than five minutes to complete.

Then talk to your family, neighbors, and colleagues get actonel about doing the same. If you are wondering who counts, the answer is everyone, whether it’s a newborn baby, child in foster care, undocumented immigrant, or an individual experiencing homelessness.Completing the census is one of the best things that you can do for the health of your community, especially during the pandemic. Thank you for helping Texas heal and for supporting these essential safety net programs.(L to R).

UTHSA medical students Swetha Maddipudi, Brittany Hansen, Charles Wang, Carson Cortino, faculty advisor get actonel Kaparaboyna Kumar, MD, Ryan Wealther, Sidney Akabogu, Irma Ruiz, and Frank Jung pose with the TMA Be Wise Immunize banner. Photo courtesy by Ryan WealtherRyan WealtherMedical Student, UT Health San Antonio Long School of MedicineStudent Member, Texas Medical AssociationEditor’s Note. August is National Immunization Awareness Month.

This article is part of a Me&My Doctor series highlighting and promoting the use of vaccinations.“Can get actonel the flu shot give you the flu?. €â€œIs it dangerous for pregnant women to get a flu shot?. €â€œCan vaccines cause get actonel autism?.

€These were questions women at Alpha Home, a residential substance abuse rehabilitation center in San Antonio, asked my fellow medical students and me during a flu vaccine discussion. It is easy to see why these questions were asked, as vaccine misinformation is common today.UTHSA medical student Frank Jing (left) gets a vaccine fromKaparaboyna Kumar, MD, (right).Photo courtesy of Ryan Wealther“No” is the answer to all the questions. These were exactly the types of myths we set out to dispel at our vaccination drive.UT Health San Antonio Long School of Medicine medical students (under the supervision of Kaparaboyna Ashok Kumar, MD, faculty advisor for the Texas Medical Association Medical Student Section at UT Health San Antonio) hosted the vaccine drive at Alpha get actonel Home with the support of TMA’s Be Wise – Immunize℠ program, a public health initiative that aims to increase vaccinations and vaccine awareness through shot clinics and education.

Our program consisted of a vaccination drive and an interactive, educational presentation that addressed influenza, common flu shot questions, and general vaccine myths. The Alpha Home residents could ask us questions during the program.We were interested to see if our educational program could answer Alpha Home residents’ questions about vaccinations and allay their get actonel hesitations about getting a flu vaccination. To gauge this, we created a brief survey.(Before I discuss the results of the survey, I should define vaccine hesitancy.

Vaccine hesitancy is a concept defined by the World Health Organization. It relates to when patients get actonel do not vaccinate despite having access to vaccines. Vaccine hesitancy is a problem because it prevents individuals from receiving their vaccinations.

That makes them more susceptible to getting sick from vaccine-preventable diseases.)We surveyed the residents’ opinions about vaccinations before and after our educational program. While opinions about shots improved with each survey question, we saw the most get actonel significant attitude change reflected in answers to the questions “I am concerned that vaccinations might not be safe,” and “How likely are you to receive a flu shot today?. € We had informed the residents and improved their understanding and acceptance of immunizations.Post-survey results show more residents at the Alpha Home shifted to more positive attitudes about vaccines, after learning more about their effectiveness by trusted members of the medical community.

Graph by Ryan WealtherWhy is this get actonel important?. First, our findings confirm what we already knew. Education by a trusted member of the medical community can effect change.

In fact, get actonel it is widely known that physician recommendation of vaccination is one of the most critical factors affecting whether patients receive an influenza vaccination. Perhaps some added proof to this is that a few of the Alpha Home residents were calling me “Dr. Truth” by the end of the evening.Second, our findings add get actonel to our understanding of adult vaccine hesitancy.

This is significant because most of what we know about vaccine hesitancy is limited to parental attitudes toward their children’s vaccinations. Some parents question shots for their children, and many of the most deadly diseases we vaccinate against are given in childhood, including polio, tetanus, measles, and whooping cough shots. However, adults get actonel need some vaccinations as well, like the yearly influenza vaccine.

After taking part in the UTHSA educational program, more residents at the Alpha Home shared more willingness to receive the flu vaccine. Graph by Ryan WealtherAnother reason improving attitudes is important is that receiving a flu shot is even more timely during the COVID-19 pandemic because it decreases illnesses and conserves health care resources. Thousands of get actonel people each year are hospitalized from the flu, and with hospitals filling up with coronavirus patients, we could avoid adding dangerously ill flu patients to the mix.

Lastly, these findings are important because once a COVID-19 vaccination becomes available, more people might be willing to receive it if their overall attitude toward immunizations is positive. Though the COVID-19 vaccine get actonel is still in development, it is not immune to vaccine hesitancy. Recent polls have indicated up to one-third of Americans would not receive a COVID-19 vaccine even if it were accessible and affordable.

Work is already being done to try to raise awareness and acceptance. In addition, misinformation about the COVID vaccine is circulating get actonel widely. (Someone recently asked me if the COVID vaccine will implant a microchip in people, and I have seen the same myth circulating on social media.

It will not.) This myth, however, get actonel illustrates the need for health care professionals to answer patients’ questions and to assuage their concerns.Vaccines work best when many people in a community receive them, and vaccine hesitancy can diminish vaccination rates, leaving people who can't get certain vaccines susceptible to these vaccine-preventable diseases. For example, babies under 6 months of age should not receive a flu shot, so high community vaccination rates protect these babies from getting sick with the flu. Our educational program at Alpha Home is just one example of how health care professionals can increase awareness and acceptance of shots.

As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, we get actonel need to ensure children and adults receive their vaccinations as recommended by their physician and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. I encourage readers who have questions about the vaccinations they or their child may need to talk with their physician. As health care professionals, we’re more than happy to answer your questions..

What should I tell my health care provider before I take Actonel?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • dental disease
  • esophagus, stomach, or intestine problems, like acid reflux or GERD
  • kidney disease
  • low blood calcium
  • problems sitting or standing
  • trouble swallowing
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to risedronate, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

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Medtronic's hybrid closed loop MiniMed 770G system was approved for use in very young kids with type 1 diabetes, the FDA announced on Monday.This approval marks the first hybrid closed loop system indicated for children how to buy cheap actonel online ages 2 to 6 years old with type 1 diabetes.The newly approved system is a Bluetooth-enabled version of its predecessor, Medtronic's MiniMed 670G, paired with a few new modifications. The MiniMed 670G, otherwise known as the first artificial pancreas, was the first fully automated insulin delivery device to win approval for type 1 diabetes and is currently indicated for patients as young as 7.Neither system is indicated for patients with type 2 diabetes.The MiniMed 770G includes a sensor attached to the skin that monitors glucose levels, along with an insulin pump strapped to the user's body, and an infusion patch connected to the pump with a catheter how to buy cheap actonel online to deliver the insulin. The sensor measures glucose levels under the skin every five minutes and then automatically adjusts insulin delivery by either administering or withholding insulin.

However, the user still must manually request a bolus insulin dose at mealtime to counteract carbohydrate intake.The device is not approved for children how to buy cheap actonel online younger than 2 nor for patients who need less than eight units of insulin per day.Clinical trial data from 46 children ages 2 to 6 supported the approval. Participants wore the MiniMed 770G for three months through both an at-home and hotel observation periods. During the trial, no children experienced severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or other severe adverse events."Advancements in science, technology and manufacturing have helped make great strides in the treatment and successful management of type 1 diabetes, a life-threatening chronic condition," FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn, how to buy cheap actonel online MD, said in a statement.

"The FDA is dedicated to promoting policies how to buy cheap actonel online that support the development of new technologies based on these advances, and remains committed to helping ensure that development and expansion of products that can improve the quality of life for those with this condition -- which can particularly impact children -- is safe and effective."However, the FDA also noted that continued approval is contingent on a post-marketing study to be completed by Medtronic, testing the system in a real-world setting. Certain potential risks that will be evaluated in this upcoming study include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and possible skin irritation or redness surrounding the system's infusion patch. Last Updated September 01, 2020 Kristen Monaco is a staff writer, focusing on endocrinology, how to buy cheap actonel online psychiatry, and dermatology news.

Based out of the New York City office, she’s worked at the company for nearly five years..

Medtronic's hybrid closed loop MiniMed 770G system was approved for use in very young kids with get actonel type 1 diabetes, the FDA announced on Monday.This approval marks the first hybrid closed loop system indicated for children ages 2 to 6 years old with type 1 diabetes.The newly approved system is a Bluetooth-enabled version of its predecessor, Medtronic's MiniMed 670G, paired with a few new modifications. The MiniMed 670G, otherwise known as the first artificial pancreas, was the first fully automated insulin delivery device to win approval for type 1 diabetes and is currently indicated for patients as young get actonel as 7.Neither system is indicated for patients with type 2 diabetes.The MiniMed 770G includes a sensor attached to the skin that monitors glucose levels, along with an insulin pump strapped to the user's body, and an infusion patch connected to the pump with a catheter to deliver the insulin. The sensor measures glucose levels under the skin every five minutes and then automatically adjusts insulin delivery by either administering or withholding insulin. However, the user still must manually request a bolus insulin dose at get actonel mealtime to counteract carbohydrate intake.The device is not approved for children younger than 2 nor for patients who need less than eight units of insulin per day.Clinical trial data from 46 children ages 2 to 6 supported the approval.

Participants wore the MiniMed 770G for three months through both an at-home and hotel observation periods. During the trial, no children experienced severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or other severe adverse events."Advancements in science, technology and manufacturing have helped make great strides in the treatment and successful get actonel management of type 1 diabetes, a life-threatening chronic condition," FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn, MD, said in a statement. "The FDA is dedicated to promoting policies that support the development of new technologies based on these advances, and remains committed to helping ensure that development and expansion of products that can improve the quality of life for those with this condition -- which can particularly impact children -- is safe and effective."However, the FDA also noted get actonel that continued approval is contingent on a post-marketing study to be completed by Medtronic, testing the system in a real-world setting. Certain potential risks that will be evaluated in this upcoming study include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and possible skin irritation or redness surrounding the system's infusion patch.

Last Updated September 01, 2020 Kristen Monaco is a staff writer, focusing on endocrinology, psychiatry, and dermatology news. Based out of the New York City office, she’s worked at the company for nearly five years..

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Funding will redirect people actonel and calcium supplements who use drugs from the criminal justice system August 26, 2020 - Peterborough, Ontario - Health Canada Problematic substance use has devastating impacts on people, families and communities across Canada. Tragically, the COVID-19 outbreak has worsened the situation for many Canadians struggling with substance use. The Government of Canada continues to address this serious public health issue by focusing on increasing access to quality treatment and harm reduction services nationwide.

Today, on behalf of the Honourable Patty Hajdu, Minister of Health, actonel and calcium supplements the Honourable Maryam Monsef, Minister for Women and Gender Equality and Rural Economic Development, announced more than $1.9 million in funding over the next three years to the Peterborough Police Service. Through this funding, people who use drugs and experience mental health issues will be connected to newly-created community-based outreach and support services. As part of this project, the Peterborough Police Service is working with local partners to create a community-based outreach team to increase the capacity for front-line community services to help people at risk who are referred by police.

With the help of this new team, people who use drugs or actonel and calcium supplements experience mental health issues will be redirected from the criminal justice system to harm reduction, peer support, health and social services. Additionally, this initiative will increase access to culturally appropriate services for Indigenous Peoples, LGBTQ2+ populations, youth, women, and those living with HIV through partnerships with other organizations such as Nogojiwanong Friendship Centre and Peterborough AIDS Research Network. The Government of Canada is committed to working with partners, peer workers, people with lived and living experience and other stakeholders to ensure Canadians receive the support they need to reduce the harms related to substance use..

Funding will redirect get actonel people who use drugs from the criminal justice system August 26, 2020 - Peterborough, Ontario - Health Canada Problematic substance use has devastating impacts on people, families and communities across Canada. Tragically, the COVID-19 outbreak has worsened the situation for many Canadians struggling with substance use. The Government of Canada continues to address this serious public health issue by focusing on increasing access to quality treatment and harm reduction services nationwide.

Today, on behalf of the Honourable Patty Hajdu, Minister of Health, get actonel the Honourable Maryam Monsef, Minister for Women and Gender Equality and Rural Economic Development, announced more than $1.9 million in funding over the next three years to the Peterborough Police Service. Through this funding, people who use drugs and experience mental health issues will be connected to newly-created community-based outreach and support services. As part of this project, the Peterborough Police Service is working with local partners to create a community-based outreach team to increase the capacity for front-line community services to help people at risk who are referred by police.

With the help of this new team, people who use drugs or experience mental health issues will get actonel be redirected from the criminal justice system to harm reduction, peer support, health and social services. Additionally, this initiative will increase access to culturally appropriate services for Indigenous Peoples, LGBTQ2+ populations, youth, women, and those living with HIV through partnerships with other organizations such as Nogojiwanong Friendship Centre and Peterborough AIDS Research Network. The Government of Canada is committed to working with partners, peer workers, people with lived and living experience and other stakeholders to ensure Canadians receive the support they need to reduce the harms related to substance use..

Where to get actonel

Elon Musk on Friday unveiled a coin-sized prototype of a brain implant developed by his startup Neuralink to enable people who are paralyzed to operate smartphones and robotic limbs with their thoughts — and said the company had worked to “dramatically where to get actonel simplify” the device since presenting an earlier version last summer.In an event live-streamed on YouTube to more than 150,000 viewers at one point, the company staged a demonstration in which it trotted out a pig named Gertrude that was said to have had the company’s device implanted in its head two months ago. The live stream showed what Musk claimed to be Gertrude’s real-time brain activity as it sniffed around a pen. At no point, though, did he provide evidence that the signals — rendered in beeps and bright blue wave patterns on screen — were, in fact, emanating from where to get actonel the pig’s brain.A pig presented at a Neuralink demonstration was said to have one of the company’s brain implants in its head.

YouTube screenshot“This is obviously sounding increasingly like a Black Mirror episode,” Musk said at one point during the event as he responded affirmatively to a question about whether the company’s implant could eventually be used to save and replay memories. €œThe future’s going to be weird.”advertisement Musk said that in July Neuralink received a breakthrough device designation from the Food and Drug Administration — a regulatory pathway that could allow the company where to get actonel to soon start a clinical trial in people with paraplegia and tetraplegia. The big reveal came after four former Neuralink employees told STAT that the company’s leaders have long fostered an internal culture characterized by rushed timelines and the “move fast and break things” ethos of a tech company — a pace sometimes at odds with the slow and incremental pace that’s typical of medical device development.

Advertisement Friday’s event began, 40 minutes late, with a glossy video about the company’s work — and then panned to Musk, standing in front of a blue curtain beside a gleaming new version of the company’s surgical “sewing machine” robot that could easily have been where to get actonel mistaken for a giant Apple device. Musk described the event as a “product demo” and said its primary purpose was to recruit potential new employees. It was unclear whether the demonstration where to get actonel was taking place at the company’s Fremont, Calif., headquarters or elsewhere.

Musk proceeded to reveal the new version of Neuralink’s brain implant, which he said was designed to fit snugly into the top of the skull. Neuralink’s technological design has changed significantly since its last big update in July where to get actonel 2019. At that time, the company’s brain implant system involved a credit-card sized device designed to be positioned behind the back of a person’s ear, with several wires stretching to the top of the skull.

After demonstrating the pig’s brain activity at Friday’s event, Musk showed video footage of a pig walking where to get actonel on a treadmill and said Neuralink’s device could be used to “predict the position of limbs with high accuracy.” That capability would be critical to allowing someone using the device to do something like controlling a prosthetic limb, for example.Neuralink for months has signaled that it initially plans to develop its device for people who are paralyzed. It said at its July 2019 event that it wanted to start human testing by the end of 2020. Receiving the breakthrough device designation from the FDA — designed to speed up the lengthy regulatory process — is a step forward, but it by no means guarantees that a device will receive a green light, either in a short or longer-term where to get actonel time frame.

After Musk’s presentation, a handful of the company’s employees — all wearing masks, but seated only inches apart — joined him to take questions submitted on Twitter or from the small audience in the room.In typical fashion for a man who in 2018 sent a Tesla Roadster into space, Musk didn’t hesitate to use the event to cross-promote his electric car company. Asked whether the where to get actonel Neuralink chip would allow people to summon their Tesla telepathically, Musk responded. €œDefinitely — of course.”Matthew MacDougall, the company’s head neurosurgeon, appearing in scrubs, said the company had so far only implanted its technology into the brain’s cortical surface, the coaster-width layer enveloping the brain, but added that it hoped to go deeper in the future.

Still, Musk said where to get actonel. €œYou could solve blindness, you could solve paralysis, you could solve hearing — you can solve a lot just by interfacing with the cortex.”Musk and MacDougall said they hoped to eventually implant Neuralink’s devices — which they referred to on stage simply as “links” — in the deeper structures of the brain, such as in the hypothalamus, which is believed to play a critical role in mental illnesses including depression, anxiety, and PTSD.There were no updates at the event of Neuralink’s research in monkeys, which the company has been conducting in partnership with the University of California, Davis since 2017. At last July’s event, Musk said — without providing evidence — that a where to get actonel monkey had controlled a computer with its brain.At that same July 2019 event, Neuralink released a preprint paper — published a few months later — that claimed to show that a series of Neuralink electrodes implanted in the brains of rats could record neural signals.

Critically, the work did not show where in the brain the implanted electrodes were recording from, for how long they were recording, or whether the recordings could be linked to any of the rats’ bodily movements.In touting Friday’s event — and Neuralink’s technological capabilities — on Twitter in recent weeks, Musk spoke of “AI symbiosis while u wait” and referenced the “matrix in the matrix” — a science-fiction reference about revealing the true nature of reality. The progress where to get actonel the company reported on Friday fell far short of that. Neuralink’s prototype is ambitious, but it has yet to show evidence that it can match up to the brain-machine interfaces developed by academic labs and other companies.

Other groups have shown that they can listen in on where to get actonel neural activity and allow primates and people to control a computer cursor with their brain — so-called “read-out” technology — and have also shown that they can use electrical stimulation to input information, such as a command or the heat of a hot cup of coffee, using “write-in” technology. Neuralink said on Friday that its technology would have both read-out and write-in capabilities.Musk acknowledged that Neuralink still has a long way to go. In closing the event after more than 70 where to get actonel minutes, Musk said.

€œThere’s a tremendous amount of work to be done to go from here to a device that is widely available and affordable and reliable.”Following the news this week of what appears to have been the first confirmed case of a Covid-19 reinfection, other researchers have been coming forward with their own reports. One in Belgium, another in the Netherlands. And now, one in Nevada.What caught experts’ attention about the case of the 25-year-old Reno man where to get actonel was not that he appears to have contracted SARS-CoV-2 (the name of the virus that causes Covid-19) a second time.

Rather, it’s that his second bout was more serious than his first.Immunologists had expected that if the immune response generated after an initial infection could not prevent a second case, then it should at least stave off more severe illness. That’s what occurred with the first known reinfection case, in where to get actonel a 33-year-old Hong Kong man.advertisement Still, despite what happened to the man in Nevada, researchers are stressing this is not a sky-is-falling situation or one that should result in firm conclusions. They always presumed people would become vulnerable to Covid-19 again some time after recovering from an initial case, based on how our immune systems respond to other respiratory viruses, including other coronaviruses.

It’s possible that these early cases of reinfection are outliers and have features that won’t apply to the tens of millions of other people who have already shaken off Covid-19.“There are millions and millions where to get actonel of cases,” said Michael Mina, an epidemiologist at Harvard’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The real question that should get the most focus, Mina said, is, “What happens to where to get actonel most people?.

€advertisement But with more reinfection reports likely to make it into the scientific literature soon, and from there into the mainstream press, here are some things to look for in assessing them.What’s the deal with the Nevada case?. The Reno resident in question first tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in April after coming down with a where to get actonel sore throat, cough, and headache, as well as nausea and diarrhea. He got better over time and later tested negative twice.

But then, some 48 where to get actonel days later, the man started experiencing headaches, cough, and other symptoms again. Eventually, he became so sick that he had to be hospitalized and was found to have pneumonia.Researchers sequenced virus samples from both of his infections and found they were different, providing evidence that this was a new infection distinct from the first. What happens where to get actonel when we get Covid-19 in the first case?.

Researchers are finding that, generally, people who get Covid-19 develop a healthy immune response replete with both antibodies (molecules that can block pathogens from infecting cells) and T cells (which help wipe out the virus). This is what happens after other viral infections.In addition to fending off the virus the first time, that immune response also creates memories where to get actonel of the virus, should it try to invade a second time. It’s thought, then, that people who recover from Covid-19 will typically be protected from another case for some amount of time.

With other coronaviruses, protection is thought to last for perhaps a little less than a year to about three years.But researchers can’t tell how long immunity will last with a where to get actonel new pathogen (like SARS-CoV-2) until people start getting reinfected. They also don’t know exactly what mechanisms provide protection against Covid-19, nor do they know what levels of antibodies or T cells are required to signal that someone is protected through a blood test. (These are called the “correlates of protection.”) Why do experts expect second cases to be milder? where to get actonel.

With other viruses, protective immunity doesn’t just vanish one day. Instead, it wanes where to get actonel over time. Researchers have then hypothesized that with SARS-CoV-2, perhaps our immune systems might not always be able to prevent it from getting a toehold in our cells — to halt infection entirely — but that it could still put up enough of a fight to guard us from getting really sick.

Again, this is what happens with other respiratory pathogens.And it’s why some researchers actually looked at where to get actonel the Hong Kong case with relief. The man had mild to moderate Covid-19 symptoms during the first case, but was asymptomatic the second time. It was a demonstration, experts said, where to get actonel of what you would want your immune system to do.

(The case was only detected because the man’s sample was taken at the airport when he arrived back in Hong Kong after traveling in Europe.)“The fact that somebody may get reinfected is not surprising,” Malik Peiris, a virologist at the University of Hong Kong, told STAT earlier this week about the first reinfection. €œBut the reinfection didn’t cause disease, so that’s the first point.”The Nevada case, then, provides a counterexample to that. What kind of immune response did where to get actonel the person who was reinfected generate initially?.

Earlier, we described the robust immune response that most people who have Covid-19 seem to mount. But that where to get actonel was a generalization. Infections and the immune responses they induce in different people are “heterogeneous,” said Sarah Cobey, an epidemiologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago.Older people often generate weaker immune responses than younger people.

Some studies where to get actonel have also indicated that milder cases of Covid-19 induce tamer immune responses that might not provide as lasting or as thorough of a defense as stronger immune responses. The man in Hong Kong, for example, did not generate antibodies to the virus after his first infection, at least to the level that could be detected by blood tests. Perhaps that explains why he contracted the virus again just about 4 1/2 months after recovering from his initial infection.In the Nevada case, researchers did not test what kind of immune response where to get actonel the man generated after the first case.“Infection is not some binary event,” Cobey said.

And with reinfection, “there’s going to be some viral replication, but the question is how much is the immune system getting engaged?. €What might be broadly meaningful is when people who mounted robust immune responses start getting reinfected, and how severe their second cases are where to get actonel. Are people who have Covid-19 a second time infectious?.

As discussed, immune memory can prevent reinfection where to get actonel. If it can’t, it might stave off serious illness. But there’s a third aspect of this, too.“The most important question for reinfection, with the most where to get actonel serious implications for controlling the pandemic, is whether reinfected people can transmit the virus to others,” Columbia University virologist Angela Rasmussen wrote in Slate this week.Unfortunately, neither the Hong Kong nor the Reno studies looked at this question.

But if most people who get reinfected don’t spread the virus, that’s obviously good news. What happens when people broadly become susceptible again? where to get actonel. Whether it’s six months after the first infection or nine months or a year or longer, at some point, protection for most people who recover from Covid-19 is expected to wane.

And without the arrival of a vaccine and broad uptake of it, that could change the dynamics of local outbreaks.In some communities, it’s thought that more than 20% of residents where to get actonel have experienced an initial Covid-19 case, and are thus theoretically protected from another case for some time. That is still below the point of herd immunity — when enough people are immune that transmission doesn’t occur — but still, the fewer vulnerable people there are, the less likely spread is to occur.On the flip side though, if more people become susceptible to the virus again, that could increase the risk of transmission. Modelers are starting to factor that possibility into their forecasts.A crucial question for which there is not an answer yet is whether what happened to the man in where to get actonel Reno, where the second case was more severe than the first, remains a rare occurrence, as researchers expect and hope.

As the Nevada researchers wrote, “the generalizability of this finding is unknown.”An advocacy group has asked the Department of Defense to investigate what it called “an apparent failure” by Moderna (MRNA) to disclose millions of dollars in awards received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in patent applications the company filed for vaccines.In a letter to the agency, Knowledge Ecology International explained that a review of dozens of patent applications found the company received approximately $20 million from the federal government in grants several years ago and the funds “likely” led to the creation of its vaccine technology. This was used to develop vaccines to combat different viruses, such where to get actonel as Zika and, later, the virus that causes Covid-19.In arguing for an investigation, the advocacy group maintained Moderna is obligated under federal law to disclose the grants that led to nearly a dozen specific patent applications and explained the financial support means the U.S. Government would have certain rights over the patents.

In other words, where to get actonel U.S. Taxpayers would have an ownership stake in vaccines developed by the company.advertisement “This clarifies the public’s right in the inventions,” said Jamie Love, who heads Knowledge Ecology International, a nonprofit that tracks patents and access to medicines issues. €œThe disclosure (also) changes the narrative about who has financed the inventive where to get actonel activity, often the most risky part of development.” One particular patent assigned to Moderna concerns methods and compositions that can be used specifically against coronaviruses, including COVID-19.

The patent names a Moderna scientist and a former Moderna scientist as inventors, both of which acknowledged performing work under the DARPA awards in two academic papers, according to the report by the advocacy group.advertisement The group examined the 126 patents assigned to Moderna or ModernaTx as well as 154 patent applications. €œDespite the evidence that multiple inventions were conceived in the course of research supported by the DARPA awards, not a single one of the patents or applications assigned to Moderna disclose U.S. Federal government funding,” the report stated.[UPDATE where to get actonel.

A DARPA spokesman sent us this over the weekend. €œIt appears that all past and present DARPA awards to Moderna include the where to get actonel requirement to report the role of government funding for related inventions. Further, DARPA is actively researching agency awards to Moderna to identify which patents and pending patents, if any at all, may be associated with DARPA support.

This effort is ongoing.”]We asked Moderna for where to get actonel comment and will update you accordingly.The missive to the Department of Defense follows a recent analysis by Public Citizen, another advocacy group, indicating the National Institutes of Health may own mRNA-1273, the Moderna vaccine candidate for Covid-19. The advocacy group noted the federal government filed multiple patents covering the vaccine and two patent applications, in particular, list federal scientists as co-inventors.The analyses are part of a larger campaign among advocacy groups and others in the U.S. And elsewhere to ensure that Covid-19 medical products are available where to get actonel to poor populations around the world.

The concern reflects the unprecedented global demand for therapies and vaccines, and a race among wealthy nations to snap up supplies from vaccine makers. In the U.S., the effort has focused on the extent to which the federal government has provided where to get actonel taxpayer dollars to different companies to help fund their discoveries. In some cases, advocates argue that federal funding matters because it clarifies the rights that the U.S.

Government has to ensure a therapy or vaccine is available to Americans on reasonable terms.One example has been remdesivir, the Gilead Sciences (GILD) treatment being given to hospitalized Covid-19 where to get actonel patients. The role played by the U.S. Government in developing remdesivir to combat coronaviruses involved contributions from government where to get actonel personnel at such agencies as the U.S.

Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.As for the Moderna vaccine, earlier this month, the company was awarded a $1.525 billion contract by the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Services to manufacture and deliver 100 million doses of its Covid-19 vaccine. The agreement also where to get actonel includes an option to purchase another 400 million doses, although the terms were not disclosed. In announcing the agreement, the government said it would ensure Americans receive the Covid-19 vaccine at no cost, although they may be charged by health care providers for administering a shot.In this instance, however, Love said the “letter is not about price or profits.

It’s about (Moderna) not owning up where to get actonel to DARPA funding inventions. If the U.S. Wants to pay for all of the development of Moderna’s vaccine, as Moderna now acknowledges, and throw in a few more billion now, and an option to spend billions more, it’s not unreasonable to have where to get actonel some transparency over who paid for their inventions.”This is not the first time Moderna has been accused of insufficient disclosure.

Earlier this month, Knowledge Ecology International and Public Citizen maintained the company failed to disclose development costs in a $955 million contract awarded by BARDA for its Covid-19 vaccine. In all, the federal government has awarded the company approximately $2.5 billion to develop the vaccine.The coming few weeks represent a crucial moment for an ambitious plan to try to secure Covid-19 vaccines for roughly 170 countries around the world without the deep pockets to compete for what will be scarce initial supplies.Under the plan, countries that want to pool resources to buy vaccines must notify the World Health Organization and other organizers — Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, as well as where to get actonel the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations — of their intentions by Monday. That means it’s fish-or-cut-bait time for the so-called COVAX facility.Already, wealthy countries — the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, and Australia, among others, as well as the European Union — have opted to buy their own vaccine, signing bilateral contracts with manufacturers that have secured billions of doses of vaccine already.

That raises the possibility that less where to get actonel wealthy countries will be boxed out of supplies.advertisement And yet Richard Hatchett, the CEO of CEPI, insists there is a path to billions of doses of vaccine for the rest of the world in 2021. STAT spoke with Hatchett this week. A transcript of the conversation, lightly where to get actonel edited for clarity and length, follows.

You said this is a critical time for CEPI. Can you explain what needs to happen between now and mid-September for this joint purchasing approach to be a success?. Advertisement The critical moment is now for countries to commit to the COVAX facility, where to get actonel because that will enable us to secure ample quantities of vaccine and then to be able to convey when that vaccine is likely to become available based on current information.What we’re now here asking countries to do is to indicate their intent to participate by Aug.

31, and to make a binding commitment by Sept. 18. And to provide funds in support of that binding commitment by early October.

Our negotiations with companies are already taking place and it will be important for us from a planning purpose that countries indicate their intent to participate.Those binding commitments we think will be sufficient to allow us to then secure the advance purchase agreements, particularly with those companies that don’t have a prior contractual obligation to COVAX. And then obviously, we need the funds to live up to those advance purchase agreements.Is it possible this thing could still fall apart?. There appears to be some concern COVAX has been boxed out by rich countries.

There was always a possibility that there wouldn’t be sufficient uptake. But I think we’re very encouraged at this point by the level of commitment, both from countries that would be beneficiaries of the advance market commitment — that’s the lower-income, lower-middle-income countries — as well as the self-financing countries. To have over 170 countries expressing interest in participating — they see the value.We’re much more encouraged now that it’s not going to fall apart.

We still need to bring it off to maximize its value. And we’re right at the crunch moment where countries are going to have to make these commitments. So, the next month is really absolutely critical to the facility.

I am confident at this point that the world recognizes the value and wants it to work.I’ve been keeping tabs on advance purchase agreements that have been announced. And at this point, a small number of rich countries have nailed down a lot of vaccine — more than 3 billion doses. How hard does that make your job?.

The fact that they’re doing it creates anxiety among other countries. And that in itself can accelerate the pace. So, I’m not going to say that we’re not watching that with concern.I will say that for COVAX and the facility, this is absolutely critical moment.

I think we still have a window of opportunity between now and mid-September — when we’re asking that the self-financing countries to make their commitments — to make the facility real and to make it work. Between doses that are committed to COVAX through the access agreements and other agreements — these are discussions with partners that CEPI has funded as well as partners that CEPI has not funded — we still see a pathway for COVAX to well over 3 billion doses in 2021.I think it’s really important to bear in mind is that there are at least a few countries — and I think the U.S. And the U.K.

Most publicly — that may be in a situation of significant oversupply. I believe the U.S. And U.K.

Numbers, if you add them together, would result in enough vaccine for 600 million people to receive two doses of vaccine each. And, you know, there is no possible way that the U.S. Or the U.K.

Can use that much vaccine.So, there may be a lot of extra supply that looks like it’s been tied up sloshing around later. I don’t think that the bilateral deals that have been struck are going to prevent COVAX from achieving its goals.But if so much vaccine has been pre-ordered by rich countries, can countries in the COVAX pool get enough for their needs?. One of the things that we’ve argued through COVAX is that to control the pandemic or to end the acute phase of the pandemic to allow normalcy to start to reassert itself, you don’t have to vaccinate 100% of your population.You need to vaccinate those at greatest risk for bad outcomes and you need to vaccinate certain critical workers, particularly your health care workforce.

And if you can achieve that goal, which for most countries means vaccinating between 20% and maybe 30% of the population, then you can transform the pandemic into something that is much more manageable. Then you can buy yourself time to vaccinate everybody who wants to be vaccinated.We’ve argued the COVAX facility really offers the world the best shot at doing that globally in the fastest possible way, as well as providing for equitable access. This is a case where doing the equitable thing is also doing the efficient thing.CEPI has provided funding to nine vaccines.

Is it true that all those manufacturers aren’t required to provide the COVAX facility with vaccine?. That is correct. One of the things that we did, and I think it was an important role that CEPI played early on, was that we moved money very, very quickly, in small increments.

You know, some of the early contracts were only $5 million or $10 million, to get programs up and running while we potentially put in place much larger-scale, longer-term contracts.If you were doing it over again, would you have given money without strings attached?. Yes, I think I would have. I think that was critically important to initiating programs.Our contract with Moderna was established in about 48 hours.

And that provided critical funding to them to manufacture doses that got them into clinical trials within nine weeks of the genetic sequences [of the SARS-CoV-2 virus] being released.And if you look at the nine programs that we’ve invested in, seven are in clinical trials. Two — the AstraZeneca program now and the Moderna program — are among the handful in Phase 3 clinical trials. And, I think the number of projects that that we funded initially, which started in kind of a biotech or academic phase that have now been picked up by large multinational corporations, there’s at least four.

The Themis program being picked up by Merck, Oxford University by AstraZeneca, the University of Queensland by CSL, and Clover being in partnership with GSK, I think that speaks to the quality of the programs that we selected.So, I think that combination of rapid review, speed of funding, getting those programs started, getting them oriented in the right direction, I think all of that is critical to where we are now.Companies that got money from CEPI to build out production capacity — that money came with strings attached, right?. Yes, exactly. So, where CEPI has made investments that create manufacturing, or secure manufacturing capacity, the commitment has been that the capacity that is attributable to the CEPI investment is committed — at least right of first refusal — to the global procurement facility.WASHINGTON — The Trump administration removed a top Food and Drug Administration communications official from her post on Friday in the wake of several controversial agency misstatements, a senior administration official confirmed to STAT.The spokeswoman, Emily Miller, had played a lead role in defending the FDA commissioner, Stephen Hahn, after he misrepresented data regarding the use of blood plasma from recovered Covid-19 patients.

The New York Times first reported Miller’s ouster. Miller’s tenure at as the top FDA spokeswoman lasted only 11 days. Her appointment was viewed with alarm by agency officials who felt her presence at the agency was emblematic of broader political pressure from the Trump administration, STAT first reported earlier this week.advertisement Before joining the FDA, Miller had no experience in health or medicine.

Her former role as assistant commissioner for media affairs is typically not an appointment filled by political appointees. The FDA’s communications arm typically maintains a neutral, nonpolitical tone.Miller’s appointment particularly alarmed FDA staff and outside scientists given her history in right-wing political advocacy and conservatism journalism. Her résumé included a stint as a Washington Times columnist, where she penned columns with titles that include “New Obamacare ads make young women look like sluts,” and a 2013 book on gun rights titled “Emily Gets Her Gun.

But Obama Wants to Take Yours.”advertisement She also worked as a reporter for One America News Network, a right-wing cable channel that frequently espouses conspiracy theories and has declared an open alliance with President Trump.Miller quickly made her presence known at the FDA. In the wake of Hahn’s misstatements on blood plasma, she aggressively defended the commissioner, falsely claiming in a tweet that the therapy “has shown to be beneficial for 35% of patients.” An FDA press release on blood plasma, issued less than a week after her appointment, similarly alarmed agency insiders by trumpeting the emergency authorization as “Another Achievement in Administration’s Fight Against [the] Pandemic.”.

Elon Musk on Friday unveiled a coin-sized prototype of a brain implant developed by his startup Neuralink to enable people who are paralyzed to operate smartphones and robotic limbs with their thoughts — and said the company had worked to “dramatically simplify” the device since presenting an earlier version last summer.In an event live-streamed on YouTube to more get actonel than 150,000 viewers at one point, the company staged a demonstration in which it trotted out a pig named Gertrude that was said to have had the company’s device implanted in its head two months ago. The live stream showed what Musk claimed to be Gertrude’s real-time brain activity as it sniffed around a pen. At no point, though, did he provide evidence that the signals — rendered in beeps and bright blue wave patterns on screen — were, in fact, emanating get actonel from the pig’s brain.A pig presented at a Neuralink demonstration was said to have one of the company’s brain implants in its head. YouTube screenshot“This is obviously sounding increasingly like a Black Mirror episode,” Musk said at one point during the event as he responded affirmatively to a question about whether the company’s implant could eventually be used to save and replay memories. €œThe future’s going to be weird.”advertisement Musk said that in July Neuralink received a breakthrough device designation from the Food and Drug Administration — a regulatory get actonel pathway that could allow the company to soon start a clinical trial in people with paraplegia and tetraplegia.

The big reveal came after four former Neuralink employees told STAT that the company’s leaders have long fostered an internal culture characterized by rushed timelines and the “move fast and break things” ethos of a tech company — a pace sometimes at odds with the slow and incremental pace that’s typical of medical device development. Advertisement Friday’s event began, 40 minutes late, with a glossy video about get actonel the company’s work — and then panned to Musk, standing in front of a blue curtain beside a gleaming new version of the company’s surgical “sewing machine” robot that could easily have been mistaken for a giant Apple device. Musk described the event as a “product demo” and said its primary purpose was to recruit potential new employees. It was unclear whether the demonstration was get actonel taking place at the company’s Fremont, Calif., headquarters or elsewhere. Musk proceeded to reveal the new version of Neuralink’s brain implant, which he said was designed to fit snugly into the top of the skull.

Neuralink’s technological design get actonel has changed significantly since its last big update in July 2019. At that time, the company’s brain implant system involved a credit-card sized device designed to be positioned behind the back of a person’s ear, with several wires stretching to the top of the skull. After demonstrating the pig’s brain activity at Friday’s event, Musk showed video footage of a pig walking on a treadmill and said Neuralink’s device could be used to get actonel “predict the position of limbs with high accuracy.” That capability would be critical to allowing someone using the device to do something like controlling a prosthetic limb, for example.Neuralink for months has signaled that it initially plans to develop its device for people who are paralyzed. It said at its July 2019 event that it wanted to start human testing by the end of 2020. Receiving the breakthrough device designation from the FDA — get actonel designed to speed up the lengthy regulatory process — is a step forward, but it by no means guarantees that a device will receive a green light, either in a short or longer-term time frame.

After Musk’s presentation, a handful of the company’s employees — all wearing masks, but seated only inches apart — joined him to take questions submitted on Twitter or from the small audience in the room.In typical fashion for a man who in 2018 sent a Tesla Roadster into space, Musk didn’t hesitate to use the event to cross-promote his electric car company. Asked whether the Neuralink chip would allow people to summon their Tesla telepathically, Musk get actonel responded. €œDefinitely — of course.”Matthew MacDougall, the company’s head neurosurgeon, appearing in scrubs, said the company had so far only implanted its technology into the brain’s cortical surface, the coaster-width layer enveloping the brain, but added that it hoped to go deeper in the future. Still, Musk get actonel said. €œYou could solve blindness, you could solve paralysis, you could solve hearing — you can solve a lot just by interfacing with the cortex.”Musk and MacDougall said they hoped to eventually implant Neuralink’s devices — which they referred to on stage simply as “links” — in the deeper structures of the brain, such as in the hypothalamus, which is believed to play a critical role in mental illnesses including depression, anxiety, and PTSD.There were no updates at the event of Neuralink’s research in monkeys, which the company has been conducting in partnership with the University of California, Davis since 2017.

At last July’s event, Musk said — without providing evidence — that a monkey had controlled a computer with its brain.At that same July 2019 event, Neuralink released a preprint paper — published a few months later — that claimed to show that a series of Neuralink electrodes implanted in the brains of get actonel rats could record neural signals. Critically, the work did not show where in the brain the implanted electrodes were recording from, for how long they were recording, or whether the recordings could be linked to any of the rats’ bodily movements.In touting Friday’s event — and Neuralink’s technological capabilities — on Twitter in recent weeks, Musk spoke of “AI symbiosis while u wait” and referenced the “matrix in the matrix” — a science-fiction reference about revealing the true nature of reality. The progress get actonel the company reported on Friday fell far short of that. Neuralink’s prototype is ambitious, but it has yet to show evidence that it can match up to the brain-machine interfaces developed by academic labs and other companies. Other groups have shown that they can listen in on neural activity and allow primates and people to control a computer get actonel cursor with their brain — so-called “read-out” technology — and have also shown that they can use electrical stimulation to input information, such as a command or the heat of a hot cup of coffee, using “write-in” technology.

Neuralink said on Friday that its technology would have both read-out and write-in capabilities.Musk acknowledged that Neuralink still has a long way to go. In closing get actonel the event after more than 70 minutes, Musk said. €œThere’s a tremendous amount of work to be done to go from here to a device that is widely available and affordable and reliable.”Following the news this week of what appears to have been the first confirmed case of a Covid-19 reinfection, other researchers have been coming forward with their own reports. One in Belgium, another in the Netherlands. And now, one in Nevada.What caught experts’ attention about the case of the 25-year-old Reno man was not that he get actonel appears to have contracted SARS-CoV-2 (the name of the virus that causes Covid-19) a second time.

Rather, it’s that his second bout was more serious than his first.Immunologists had expected that if the immune response generated after an initial infection could not prevent a second case, then it should at least stave off more severe illness. That’s what occurred with the get actonel first known reinfection case, in a 33-year-old Hong Kong man.advertisement Still, despite what happened to the man in Nevada, researchers are stressing this is not a sky-is-falling situation or one that should result in firm conclusions. They always presumed people would become vulnerable to Covid-19 again some time after recovering from an initial case, based on how our immune systems respond to other respiratory viruses, including other coronaviruses. It’s possible that these early cases of reinfection are outliers and have features that won’t get actonel apply to the tens of millions of other people who have already shaken off Covid-19.“There are millions and millions of cases,” said Michael Mina, an epidemiologist at Harvard’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The real question that should get the most focus, Mina said, is, “What get actonel happens to most people?. €advertisement But with more reinfection reports likely to make it into the scientific literature soon, and from there into the mainstream press, here are some things to look for in assessing them.What’s the deal with the Nevada case?. The Reno resident in question first tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in get actonel April after coming down with a sore throat, cough, and headache, as well as nausea and diarrhea. He got better over time and later tested negative twice. But then, some 48 days later, the man started experiencing headaches, cough, get actonel and other symptoms again.

Eventually, he became so sick that he had to be hospitalized and was found to have pneumonia.Researchers sequenced virus samples from both of his infections and found they were different, providing evidence that this was a new infection distinct from the first. What happens when we get Covid-19 in the first case? get actonel. Researchers are finding that, generally, people who get Covid-19 develop a healthy immune response replete with both antibodies (molecules that can block pathogens from infecting cells) and T cells (which help wipe out the virus). This is what get actonel happens after other viral infections.In addition to fending off the virus the first time, that immune response also creates memories of the virus, should it try to invade a second time. It’s thought, then, that people who recover from Covid-19 will typically be protected from another case for some amount of time.

With other coronaviruses, protection is thought to last for perhaps a little less than get actonel a year to about three years.But researchers can’t tell how long immunity will last with a new pathogen (like SARS-CoV-2) until people start getting reinfected. They also don’t know exactly what mechanisms provide protection against Covid-19, nor do they know what levels of antibodies or T cells are required to signal that someone is protected through a blood test. (These are called the get actonel “correlates of protection.”) Why do experts expect second cases to be milder?. With other viruses, protective immunity doesn’t just vanish one day. Instead, it get actonel wanes over time.

Researchers have then hypothesized that with SARS-CoV-2, perhaps our immune systems might not always be able to prevent it from getting a toehold in our cells — to halt infection entirely — but that it could still put up enough of a fight to guard us from getting really sick. Again, this is what happens with other respiratory pathogens.And it’s why some researchers actually looked at the get actonel Hong Kong case with relief. The man had mild to moderate Covid-19 symptoms during the first case, but was asymptomatic the second time. It was a get actonel demonstration, experts said, of what you would want your immune system to do. (The case was only detected because the man’s sample was taken at the airport when he arrived back in Hong Kong after traveling in Europe.)“The fact that somebody may get reinfected is not surprising,” Malik Peiris, a virologist at the University of Hong Kong, told STAT earlier this week about the first reinfection.

€œBut the reinfection didn’t cause disease, so that’s the first point.”The Nevada case, then, provides a counterexample to that. What kind of immune response did the person who get actonel was reinfected generate initially?. Earlier, we described the robust immune response that most people who have Covid-19 seem to mount. But that was a generalization get actonel. Infections and the immune responses they induce in different people are “heterogeneous,” said Sarah Cobey, an epidemiologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago.Older people often generate weaker immune responses than younger people.

Some studies have also indicated that get actonel milder cases of Covid-19 induce tamer immune responses that might not provide as lasting or as thorough of a defense as stronger immune responses. The man in Hong Kong, for example, did not generate antibodies to the virus after his first infection, at least to the level that could be detected by blood tests. Perhaps that explains why he contracted the virus again just about 4 1/2 months after recovering from his initial infection.In the Nevada case, researchers did not test what kind of immune response the man generated after the first case.“Infection is not some binary get actonel event,” Cobey said. And with reinfection, “there’s going to be some viral replication, but the question is how much is the immune system getting engaged?. €What might be broadly meaningful is when people who mounted robust immune get actonel responses start getting reinfected, and how severe their second cases are.

Are people who have Covid-19 a second time infectious?. As discussed, immune memory can prevent reinfection get actonel. If it can’t, it might stave off serious illness. But there’s a third aspect of this, too.“The most important question for reinfection, with the most get actonel serious implications for controlling the pandemic, is whether reinfected people can transmit the virus to others,” Columbia University virologist Angela Rasmussen wrote in Slate this week.Unfortunately, neither the Hong Kong nor the Reno studies looked at this question. But if most people who get reinfected don’t spread the virus, that’s obviously good news.

What get actonel happens when people broadly become susceptible again?. Whether it’s six months after the first infection or nine months or a year or longer, at some point, protection for most people who recover from Covid-19 is expected to wane. And without the arrival of a vaccine and broad uptake of it, that could change the dynamics of local outbreaks.In some communities, it’s thought that more than 20% of residents have experienced an initial Covid-19 case, and are get actonel thus theoretically protected from another case for some time. That is still below the point of herd immunity — when enough people are immune that transmission doesn’t occur — but still, the fewer vulnerable people there are, the less likely spread is to occur.On the flip side though, if more people become susceptible to the virus again, that could increase the risk of transmission. Modelers are get actonel starting to factor that possibility into their forecasts.A crucial question for which there is not an answer yet is whether what happened to the man in Reno, where the second case was more severe than the first, remains a rare occurrence, as researchers expect and hope.

As the Nevada researchers wrote, “the generalizability of this finding is unknown.”An advocacy group has asked the Department of Defense to investigate what it called “an apparent failure” by Moderna (MRNA) to disclose millions of dollars in awards received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in patent applications the company filed for vaccines.In a letter to the agency, Knowledge Ecology International explained that a review of dozens of patent applications found the company received approximately $20 million from the federal government in grants several years ago and the funds “likely” led to the creation of its vaccine technology. This was used to develop vaccines to combat different viruses, such as Zika and, later, the virus that causes Covid-19.In arguing for an investigation, the advocacy group maintained Moderna is obligated under federal law to disclose the grants that led to nearly a dozen specific patent applications and explained the financial support get actonel means the U.S. Government would have certain rights over the patents. In other words, U.S get actonel. Taxpayers would have an ownership stake in vaccines developed by the company.advertisement “This clarifies the public’s right in the inventions,” said Jamie Love, who heads Knowledge Ecology International, a nonprofit that tracks patents and access to medicines issues.

€œThe disclosure (also) changes the narrative about who has financed the inventive activity, often the most risky part of development.” One particular patent assigned to Moderna concerns methods and compositions that can be used specifically against coronaviruses, including get actonel COVID-19. The patent names a Moderna scientist and a former Moderna scientist as inventors, both of which acknowledged performing work under the DARPA awards in two academic papers, according to the report by the advocacy group.advertisement The group examined the 126 patents assigned to Moderna or ModernaTx as well as 154 patent applications. €œDespite the evidence that multiple inventions were conceived in the course of research supported by the DARPA awards, not a single one of the patents or applications assigned to Moderna disclose U.S. Federal government funding,” the get actonel report stated.[UPDATE. A DARPA spokesman sent us this over the weekend.

€œIt appears that all past and present DARPA awards to Moderna include the requirement to report the role of government funding get actonel for related inventions. Further, DARPA is actively researching agency awards to Moderna to identify which patents and pending patents, if any at all, may be associated with DARPA support. This effort get actonel is ongoing.”]We asked Moderna for comment and will update you accordingly.The missive to the Department of Defense follows a recent analysis by Public Citizen, another advocacy group, indicating the National Institutes of Health may own mRNA-1273, the Moderna vaccine candidate for Covid-19. The advocacy group noted the federal government filed multiple patents covering the vaccine and two patent applications, in particular, list federal scientists as co-inventors.The analyses are part of a larger campaign among advocacy groups and others in the U.S. And elsewhere to ensure that Covid-19 medical get actonel products are available to poor populations around the world.

The concern reflects the unprecedented global demand for therapies and vaccines, and a race among wealthy nations to snap up supplies from vaccine makers. In the U.S., the effort has focused on the extent to which the federal government has provided taxpayer dollars to different companies to get actonel help fund their discoveries. In some cases, advocates argue that federal funding matters because it clarifies the rights that the U.S. Government has to ensure a therapy or vaccine is available to Americans get actonel on reasonable terms.One example has been remdesivir, the Gilead Sciences (GILD) treatment being given to hospitalized Covid-19 patients. The role played by the U.S.

Government in developing get actonel remdesivir to combat coronaviruses involved contributions from government personnel at such agencies as the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.As for the Moderna vaccine, earlier this month, the company was awarded a $1.525 billion contract by the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Services to manufacture and deliver 100 million doses of its Covid-19 vaccine. The agreement also includes an option to purchase another 400 million get actonel doses, although the terms were not disclosed. In announcing the agreement, the government said it would ensure Americans receive the Covid-19 vaccine at no cost, although they may be charged by health care providers for administering a shot.In this instance, however, Love said the “letter is not about price or profits. It’s about (Moderna) not owning up get actonel to DARPA funding inventions.

If the U.S. Wants to pay for all of the development of Moderna’s vaccine, as Moderna now acknowledges, and throw in a few more billion now, and an option to spend billions more, it’s not unreasonable to have some transparency over who paid for their inventions.”This is not the first time Moderna has been accused of insufficient get actonel disclosure. Earlier this month, Knowledge Ecology International and Public Citizen maintained the company failed to disclose development costs in a $955 million contract awarded by BARDA for its Covid-19 vaccine. In all, the federal government has awarded the company approximately $2.5 billion to develop the vaccine.The coming few weeks represent a crucial moment for an ambitious plan to try to secure Covid-19 vaccines for roughly 170 countries around the world without the deep pockets to compete for what will be scarce initial supplies.Under the plan, countries that want to pool resources to buy vaccines must notify the World Health get actonel Organization and other organizers — Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, as well as the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations — of their intentions by Monday. That means it’s fish-or-cut-bait time for the so-called COVAX facility.Already, wealthy countries — the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, and Australia, among others, as well as the European Union — have opted to buy their own vaccine, signing bilateral contracts with manufacturers that have secured billions of doses of vaccine already.

That raises the possibility that less wealthy countries will be boxed out of supplies.advertisement And yet Richard Hatchett, the CEO of CEPI, insists there is a path to billions of doses of vaccine for get actonel the rest of the world in 2021. STAT spoke with Hatchett this week. A transcript get actonel of the conversation, lightly edited for clarity and length, follows. You said this is a critical time for CEPI. Can you explain what needs to happen between now and mid-September for this joint purchasing approach to be a success?.

Advertisement The critical moment is now for countries to commit to the COVAX facility, because that will enable us to secure ample quantities of vaccine and then to be able to convey when that vaccine is likely to become available based on current information.What we’re now here asking countries to do is to indicate their intent to get actonel participate by Aug. 31, and to make a binding commitment by Sept. 18. And to provide funds in support of that binding commitment by early October. Our negotiations with companies are already taking place and it will be important for us from a planning purpose that countries indicate their intent to participate.Those binding commitments we think will be sufficient to allow us to then secure the advance purchase agreements, particularly with those companies that don’t have a prior contractual obligation to COVAX.

And then obviously, we need the funds to live up to those advance purchase agreements.Is it possible this thing could still fall apart?. There appears to be some concern COVAX has been boxed out by rich countries. There was always a possibility that there wouldn’t be sufficient uptake. But I think we’re very encouraged at this point by the level of commitment, both from countries that would be beneficiaries of the advance market commitment — that’s the lower-income, lower-middle-income countries — as well as the self-financing countries. To have over 170 countries expressing interest in participating — they see the value.We’re much more encouraged now that it’s not going to fall apart.

We still need to bring it off to maximize its value. And we’re right at the crunch moment where countries are going to have to make these commitments. So, the next month is really absolutely critical to the facility. I am confident at this point that the world recognizes the value and wants it to work.I’ve been keeping tabs on advance purchase agreements that have been announced. And at this point, a small number of rich countries have nailed down a lot of vaccine — more than 3 billion doses.

How hard does that make your job?. The fact that they’re doing it creates anxiety among other countries. And that in itself can accelerate the pace. So, I’m not going to say that we’re not watching that with concern.I will say that for COVAX and the facility, this is absolutely critical moment. I think we still have a window of opportunity between now and mid-September — when we’re asking that the self-financing countries to make their commitments — to make the facility real and to make it work.

Between doses that are committed to COVAX through the access agreements and other agreements — these are discussions with partners that CEPI has funded as well as partners that CEPI has not funded — we still see a pathway for COVAX to well over 3 billion doses in 2021.I think it’s really important to bear in mind is that there are at least a few countries — and I think the U.S. And the U.K. Most publicly — that may be in a situation of significant oversupply. I believe the U.S. And U.K.

Numbers, if you add them together, would result in enough vaccine for 600 million people to receive two doses of vaccine each. And, you know, there is no possible way that the U.S. Or the U.K. Can use that much vaccine.So, there may be a lot of extra supply that looks like it’s been tied up sloshing around later. I don’t think that the bilateral deals that have been struck are going to prevent COVAX from achieving its goals.But if so much vaccine has been pre-ordered by rich countries, can countries in the COVAX pool get enough for their needs?.

One of the things that we’ve argued through COVAX is that to control the pandemic or to end the acute phase of the pandemic to allow normalcy to start to reassert itself, you don’t have to vaccinate 100% of your population.You need to vaccinate those at greatest risk for bad outcomes and you need to vaccinate certain critical workers, particularly your health care workforce. And if you can achieve that goal, which for most countries means vaccinating between 20% and maybe 30% of the population, then you can transform the pandemic into something that is much more manageable. Then you can buy yourself time to vaccinate everybody who wants to be vaccinated.We’ve argued the COVAX facility really offers the world the best shot at doing that globally in the fastest possible way, as well as providing for equitable access. This is a case where doing the equitable thing is also doing the efficient thing.CEPI has provided funding to nine vaccines. Is it true that all those manufacturers aren’t required to provide the COVAX facility with vaccine?.

That is correct. One of the things that we did, and I think it was an important role that CEPI played early on, was that we moved money very, very quickly, in small increments. You know, some of the early contracts were only $5 million or $10 million, to get programs up and running while we potentially put in place much larger-scale, longer-term contracts.If you were doing it over again, would you have given money without strings attached?. Yes, I think I would have. I think that was critically important to initiating programs.Our contract with Moderna was established in about 48 hours.

And that provided critical funding to them to manufacture doses that got them into clinical trials within nine weeks of the genetic sequences [of the SARS-CoV-2 virus] being released.And if you look at the nine programs that we’ve invested in, seven are in clinical trials. Two — the AstraZeneca program now and the Moderna program — are among the handful in Phase 3 clinical trials. And, I think the number of projects that that we funded initially, which started in kind of a biotech or academic phase that have now been picked up by large multinational corporations, there’s at least four. The Themis program being picked up by Merck, Oxford University by AstraZeneca, the University of Queensland by CSL, and Clover being in partnership with GSK, I think that speaks to the quality of the programs that we selected.So, I think that combination of rapid review, speed of funding, getting those programs started, getting them oriented in the right direction, I think all of that is critical to where we are now.Companies that got money from CEPI to build out production capacity — that money came with strings attached, right?. Yes, exactly.

So, where CEPI has made investments that create manufacturing, or secure manufacturing capacity, the commitment has been that the capacity that is attributable to the CEPI investment is committed — at least right of first refusal — to the global procurement facility.WASHINGTON — The Trump administration removed a top Food and Drug Administration communications official from her post on Friday in the wake of several controversial agency misstatements, a senior administration official confirmed to STAT.The spokeswoman, Emily Miller, had played a lead role in defending the FDA commissioner, Stephen Hahn, after he misrepresented data regarding the use of blood plasma from recovered Covid-19 patients. The New York Times first reported Miller’s ouster. Miller’s tenure at as the top FDA spokeswoman lasted only 11 days. Her appointment was viewed with alarm by agency officials who felt her presence at the agency was emblematic of broader political pressure from the Trump administration, STAT first reported earlier this week.advertisement Before joining the FDA, Miller had no experience in health or medicine. Her former role as assistant commissioner for media affairs is typically not an appointment filled by political appointees.

The FDA’s communications arm typically maintains a neutral, nonpolitical tone.Miller’s appointment particularly alarmed FDA staff and outside scientists given her history in right-wing political advocacy and conservatism journalism. Her résumé included a stint as a Washington Times columnist, where she penned columns with titles that include “New Obamacare ads make young women look like sluts,” and a 2013 book on gun rights titled “Emily Gets Her Gun. But Obama Wants to Take Yours.”advertisement She also worked as a reporter for One America News Network, a right-wing cable channel that frequently espouses conspiracy theories and has declared an open alliance with President Trump.Miller quickly made her presence known at the FDA. In the wake of Hahn’s misstatements on blood plasma, she aggressively defended the commissioner, falsely claiming in a tweet that the therapy “has shown to be beneficial for 35% of patients.” An FDA press release on blood plasma, issued less than a week after her appointment, similarly alarmed agency insiders by trumpeting the emergency authorization as “Another Achievement in Administration’s Fight Against [the] Pandemic.”.

What does actonel do

How to cite this article:Singh O what does actonel do P. Aftermath of celebrity suicide – Media coverage and role of psychiatrists. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:337-8Celebrity suicide is one of what does actonel do the highly publicized events in our country.

Indians got a glimpse of this following an unfortunate incident where a popular Hindi film actor died of suicide. As expected, the media went into a frenzy as newspapers, news channels, and social media were full of stories providing minute details of the suicidal act. Some even going as far as highlighting the color of the cloth what does actonel do used in the suicide as well as showing the lifeless body of the actor.

All kinds of personal details were dug up, and speculations and hypotheses became the order of the day in the next few days that followed. In the process, reputations of many people associated with the actor were besmirched and their private and personal details were freely and blatantly broadcast and discussed on electronic, print, and what does actonel do social media. We understand that media houses have their own need and duty to report and sensationalize news for increasing their visibility (aka TRP), but such reporting has huge impacts on the mental health of the vulnerable population.The impact of this was soon realized when many incidents of copycat suicide were reported from all over the country within a few days of the incident.

Psychiatrists suddenly started getting distress calls from their patients in despair with increased suicidal ideation. This has become a major area of concern for the psychiatry community.The Indian Psychiatric Society has what does actonel do been consistently trying to engage with media to promote ethical reporting of suicide. Section 24 (1) of Mental Health Care Act, 2017, forbids publication of photograph of mentally ill person without his consent.[1] The Press Council of India has adopted the guidelines of World Health Organization report on Preventing Suicide.

A resource for media professionals, which came out with an advisory to be followed by media in reporting cases of suicide. It includes points forbidding them from putting stories in prominent positions and unduly repeating them, explicitly describing the method used, providing details about the site/location, using sensational headlines, or using photographs and video what does actonel do footage of the incident.[2] Unfortunately, the advisory seems to have little effect in the aftermath of celebrity suicides. Channels were full of speculations about the person's mental condition and illness and also his relationships and finances.

Many fictional accounts of his symptoms and illness were touted, which is not only against the ethics but is also contrary to MHCA, 2017.[1]It went to the extent that the name of his psychiatrist was mentioned what does actonel do and quotes were attributed to him without taking any account from him. The Indian Psychiatric Society has written to the Press Council of India underlining this concern and asking for measures to ensure ethics in reporting suicide.While there is a need for engagement with media to make them aware of the grave impact of negative suicide reporting on the lives of many vulnerable persons, there is even a more urgent need for training of psychiatrists regarding the proper way of interaction with media. This has been amply brought out in the aftermath of this incident.

Many psychiatrists and mental health professionals were called by media houses to what does actonel do comment on the episode. Many psychiatrists were quoted, or “misquoted,” or “quoted out of context,” commenting on the life of a person whom they had never examined and had no “professional authority” to do so. There were even stories with byline of a psychiatrist where what does actonel do the content provided was not only unscientific but also way beyond the expertise of a psychiatrist.

These types of viewpoints perpetuate stigma, myths, and “misleading concepts” about psychiatry and are detrimental to the image of psychiatry in addition to doing harm and injustice to our patients. Hence, the need to formulate a guideline for interaction of psychiatrists with the media is imperative.In the infamous Goldwater episode, 12,356 psychiatrists were asked to cast opinion about the fitness of Barry Goldwater for presidential candidature. Out of 2417 respondents, 1189 psychiatrists reported him to be mentally unfit while none had actually examined him.[3] This led to the formulation of “The Goldwater Rule” by the American Psychiatric Association in 1973,[4] but we have witnessed the same phenomenon at the time of presidential candidature of Donald Trump.Psychiatrists should be encouraged to interact with media to what does actonel do provide scientific information about mental illnesses and reduction of stigma, but “statements to the media” can be a double-edged sword, and we should know about the rules of engagements and boundaries of interactions.

Methods and principles of interaction with media should form a part of our training curriculum. Many professional societies have guidelines and resource books for interacting with media, and psychiatrists should familiarize themselves with these documents. The Press what does actonel do Council guideline is likely to prompt reporters to seek psychiatrists for their expert opinion.

It is useful for them to have a template ready with suicide rates, emphasizing multicausality of suicide, role of mental disorders, as well as help available.[5]It is about time that the Indian Psychiatric Society formulated its own guidelines laying down the broad principles and boundaries governing the interaction of Indian psychiatrists with the media. Till then, it is desirable to be guided by the following broad principles:It should be assumed that no statement goes “off the record” as the media person is most likely recording the interview, and we should also record any such conversation from our endIt should be clarified in which capacity comments are being made – professional, personal, or as a representative of an organizationOne should not comment on any what does actonel do person whom he has not examinedPsychiatrists should take any such opportunity to educate the public about mental health issuesThe comments should be justified and limited by the boundaries of scientific knowledge available at the moment. References Correspondence Address:Dr.

O P SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict what does actonel do of Interest. NoneDOI.

10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_816_20.

How to cite this article:Singh get actonel O P. Aftermath of celebrity suicide – Media coverage and role of psychiatrists. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:337-8Celebrity get actonel suicide is one of the highly publicized events in our country. Indians got a glimpse of this following an unfortunate incident where a popular Hindi film actor died of suicide. As expected, the media went into a frenzy as newspapers, news channels, and social media were full of stories providing minute details of the suicidal act.

Some even going as far as highlighting the color of the cloth used in the suicide as well as get actonel showing the lifeless body of the actor. All kinds of personal details were dug up, and speculations and hypotheses became the order of the day in the next few days that followed. In the process, reputations of many people associated with the actor were besmirched and their private and personal details were freely get actonel and blatantly broadcast and discussed on electronic, print, and social media. We understand that media houses have their own need and duty to report and sensationalize news for increasing their visibility (aka TRP), but such reporting has huge impacts on the mental health of the vulnerable population.The impact of this was soon realized when many incidents of copycat suicide were reported from all over the country within a few days of the incident. Psychiatrists suddenly started getting distress calls from their patients in despair with increased suicidal ideation.

This has become a major area of concern for the psychiatry get actonel community.The Indian Psychiatric Society has been consistently trying to engage with media to promote ethical reporting of suicide. Section 24 (1) of Mental Health Care Act, 2017, forbids publication of photograph of mentally ill person without his consent.[1] The Press Council of India has adopted the guidelines of World Health Organization report on Preventing Suicide. A resource for media professionals, which came out with an advisory to be followed by media in reporting cases of suicide. It includes points forbidding them from putting stories in prominent positions and unduly repeating them, explicitly describing the method used, providing details about the site/location, using sensational headlines, or using photographs and video get actonel footage of the incident.[2] Unfortunately, the advisory seems to have little effect in the aftermath of celebrity suicides. Channels were full of speculations about the person's mental condition and illness and also his relationships and finances.

Many fictional accounts of his symptoms and illness were touted, which is not only against the ethics but is also get actonel contrary to MHCA, 2017.[1]It went to the extent that the name of his psychiatrist was mentioned and quotes were attributed to him without taking any account from him. The Indian Psychiatric Society has written to the Press Council of India underlining this concern and asking for measures to ensure ethics in reporting suicide.While there is a need for engagement with media to make them aware of the grave impact of negative suicide reporting on the lives of many vulnerable persons, there is even a more urgent need for training of psychiatrists regarding the proper way of interaction with media. This has been amply brought out in the aftermath of this incident. Many psychiatrists and mental health professionals were called by media houses to comment on the episode get actonel. Many psychiatrists were quoted, or “misquoted,” or “quoted out of context,” commenting on the life of a person whom they had never examined and had no “professional authority” to do so.

There were even stories with byline of a psychiatrist where get actonel the content provided was not only unscientific but also way beyond the expertise of a psychiatrist. These types of viewpoints perpetuate stigma, myths, and “misleading concepts” about psychiatry and are detrimental to the image of psychiatry in addition to doing harm and injustice to our patients. Hence, the need to formulate a guideline for interaction of psychiatrists with the media is imperative.In the infamous Goldwater episode, 12,356 psychiatrists were asked to cast opinion about the fitness of Barry Goldwater for presidential candidature. Out of 2417 respondents, 1189 psychiatrists reported him to be mentally unfit while none had get actonel actually examined him.[3] This led to the formulation of “The Goldwater Rule” by the American Psychiatric Association in 1973,[4] but we have witnessed the same phenomenon at the time of presidential candidature of Donald Trump.Psychiatrists should be encouraged to interact with media to provide scientific information about mental illnesses and reduction of stigma, but “statements to the media” can be a double-edged sword, and we should know about the rules of engagements and boundaries of interactions. Methods and principles of interaction with media should form a part of our training curriculum.

Many professional societies have guidelines and resource books for interacting with media, and psychiatrists should familiarize themselves with these documents. The Press Council guideline is likely get actonel to prompt reporters to seek psychiatrists for their expert opinion. It is useful for them to have a template ready with suicide rates, emphasizing multicausality of suicide, role of mental disorders, as well as help available.[5]It is about time that the Indian Psychiatric Society formulated its own guidelines laying down the broad principles and boundaries governing the interaction of Indian psychiatrists with the media. Till then, get actonel it is desirable to be guided by the following broad principles:It should be assumed that no statement goes “off the record” as the media person is most likely recording the interview, and we should also record any such conversation from our endIt should be clarified in which capacity comments are being made – professional, personal, or as a representative of an organizationOne should not comment on any person whom he has not examinedPsychiatrists should take any such opportunity to educate the public about mental health issuesThe comments should be justified and limited by the boundaries of scientific knowledge available at the moment. References Correspondence Address:Dr.

O P SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict get actonel of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_816_20.

Actonel or fosamax

€œI know there’s fatigue but the virus has shown that when we let our guard down, it can actonel or fosamax surge back at breakneck speed and threaten hospitals and health systems”, agency chief Tedros Adhanam Ghebreyesus told journalists on Monday. Last week, WHO reported that the pandemic has entered a worrying phase as actonel or fosamax the northern hemisphere winter season approaches. At the time, the caseload in Europe was almost three times higher than during the first peak of the pandemic in March. Break transmission chains Tedros said he was encouraged to see many leaders communicating with their populations about actonel or fosamax targeted measures necessary to slow coronavirus spread and protect health workers and health systems.

He pointed out that as cases rise, the number of people needing hospital beds and intensive care also increases. And although nurses and doctors now have a much better actonel or fosamax understanding of how best to treat people with the virus, the situation could put them and patients at risk. “So, it’s important that all governments focus on the fundamentals that help to break the chains of transmission and save both lives and livelihoods”, he said. €œThis means active case finding, cluster investigations, isolating all cases, quarantining contacts, ensuring good clinical care, supporting and protecting health workers and protecting actonel or fosamax the vulnerable.” Tedros underlined that everyone also has a role to play through practicing physical distancing, wearing masks, avoiding crowds and other recommended measures.

We Are Family WHO announced that one of the biggest anthems from the disco era is being refashioned as a “clarion call” for the COVID-19 actonel or fosamax pandemic. €˜We Are Family’, by the American group Sister Sledge, will be featured in a new campaign to promote global solidarity, unity and collaboration in the face of the disease. Kim Sledge, one of the four sisters who sang the dancefloor actonel or fosamax classic, will re-record a special edition of the 1979 hit which will be released online on 9 November. Part of the proceeds will go towards pandemic response and strengthening health services around the world.

“This is a solidarity effort for a actonel or fosamax global concern”, said Ms. Sledge, speaking via video link. “We all - every tribe, every actonel or fosamax tongue, every nation, every people - have the banner of love over us, and desire to bring us together in this world to fight the kinds of things that come against who we are.” Get up everybody and sing The new version of ‘We Are Family’ will be accompanied by a video featuring celebrities, frontline heroes and members of the public. People worldwide are encouraged to join the #WeAreFamily campaign, launched on Monday, by recording videos with their actonel or fosamax close family and friends singing the song and then sharing their efforts on social media.

The World We Want organization, a global social impact enterprise, is also a partner in the campaign. Founder Natasha Mudhar said she was asked why the song was being released now, and actonel or fosamax not when the pandemic was first declared back in March. €œAnd the reason why now is that the pandemic that we are all facing is as relevant as it is today as it was five, six months ago”, she said. €œWith our music video that we’re producing…we want it to be kind of a real clarion call that this beautiful, real, global world family is coming together in unity, in solidarity, not just in 2020 but also looking to 2021 as well, to address any global health challenge that we ever face, including and beyond the COVID pandemic.”As soon as vaccines are licensed for use, the world will need as many syringes as doses of vaccine, said UNICEF on Monday.To begin preparations, this year, UNICEF will stockpile 520 million syringes in its warehouses, part of a larger plan to have a billion syringes ready for use through 2021, to guarantee initial supply and help ensure that syringes arrive before vaccines are distributed.During 2021, assuming there actonel or fosamax are enough doses of COVID-19 vaccines, UNICEF expects to deliver around a billion syringes to support COVID-19 vaccination efforts on top of the 620 million syringes the agency will purchase for other vaccination programmes, against other diseases such as measles, typhoid and more.Historic undertaking“Vaccinating the world against COVID-19 will be one of the largest mass undertakings in human history, and we will need to move as quickly as the vaccines can be produced,” said Henrietta Fore, UNICEF Executive Director.“In order to move fast later, we must move fast now.

By the end of the year, we will already have over half a billion syringes pre-positioned where they can be deployed quickly and cost effectively. That’s enough syringes to wrap around the world one and a half times.” In line with the longstanding collaboration between the two partners, the global vaccine alliance Gavi, will reimburse UNICEF for the cost of syringes and safety boxes, which will then be used for the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility (COVAX Facility) and for other Gavi-funded immunization programmes, if needed‘Safety boxes’ for disposalBesides syringes, UNICEF is also buying 5 million safety boxes so that used syringes and needles can be disposed in a safe manner by personnel at health facilities, reducing the risk of needle stick injuries and blood borne diseases.Every safety actonel or fosamax box carries 100 syringes. Accordingly, UNICEF said actonel or fosamax it was “bundling” the syringes with safety boxes to ensure enough safety boxes are available to go along with the syringes.Injection equipment such as syringes and safety boxes have a shelf life of five years, the agency notes. Lead-times for such equipment are also long as these items are bulky and need to be transported by sea freight.

Vaccines, which are heat sensitive, are normally transported actonel or fosamax more quickly by air.As the key procurement coordinator for Gavi, UNICEF is already the largest single vaccine buyer in the world, procuring more than 2 billion doses of vaccines annually for routine immunization and outbreak response on behalf of nearly 100 countries. Every year,UNICEF provides vaccines for almost half of the world’s children and procures and supplies around 600-800 million syringes for regular immunization programmes.Huge increaseCOVID-19 vaccines will likely treble or quadruple that number, depending on the number that are ultimately produced and secured by UNICEF.“Over two decades, Gavi has helped an additional 822 million children from the world’s most vulnerable countries access critical, life-saving vaccines”, said Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi. €œThis would not have been possible without our partnership with UNICEF, and it is actonel or fosamax this same collaboration that will be essential to Gavi’s work with the COVAX Facility.”To make sure that vaccines are transported and stored at the right temperature, UNICEF, along with the World Health Organization (WHO), is also mapping out existing cold chain equipment and storage capacity – in the private as well as public sector – and preparing necessary guidance for countries to receive vaccines.“We are doing everything we can to deliver these essential supplies efficiently, effectively and at the right temperature, as we already do so well all over the world,” Ms. Fore said.Even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, with support from Gavi and in partnership with WHO, UNICEF has been upgrading the existing cold chain equipment across health facilities in countries to ensure that vaccines remain safe and effective throughout their journey.Fridges boost health servicesSince 2017, over 40,000 cold-chain fridges, including solar fridges, have been installed across health facilities, mostly in Africa, said the agency.And in many countries, UNICEF is promoting solar technologies to help countries maintain supply chains.In South Sudan, the least electrified country in the world, where temperatures frequently exceed 40 degrees Celsius, more than 700 health facilities have been equipped by UNICEF with solar power fridges - around 50 per cent of all facilities nationwide..

€œI know there’s fatigue but the virus has shown that when we let our guard down, it can surge back at breakneck speed and threaten hospitals and health systems”, agency chief Tedros Adhanam Ghebreyesus told journalists on get actonel Monday. Last week, WHO reported that the pandemic has entered a get actonel worrying phase as the northern hemisphere winter season approaches. At the time, the caseload in Europe was almost three times higher than during the first peak of the pandemic in March. Break transmission chains Tedros said he was encouraged to see many leaders communicating with their populations about targeted get actonel measures necessary to slow coronavirus spread and protect health workers and health systems.

He pointed out that as cases rise, the number of people needing hospital beds and intensive care also increases. And although nurses and doctors now have a much better understanding of how best to treat get actonel people with the virus, the situation could put them and patients at risk. “So, it’s important that all governments focus on the fundamentals that help to break the chains of transmission and save both lives and livelihoods”, he said. €œThis means active case finding, cluster investigations, isolating all cases, get actonel quarantining contacts, ensuring good clinical care, supporting and protecting health workers and protecting the vulnerable.” Tedros underlined that everyone also has a role to play through practicing physical distancing, wearing masks, avoiding crowds and other recommended measures.

We Are Family WHO announced that get actonel one of the biggest anthems from the disco era is being refashioned as a “clarion call” for the COVID-19 pandemic. €˜We Are Family’, by the American group Sister Sledge, will be featured in a new campaign to promote global solidarity, unity and collaboration in the face of the disease. Kim Sledge, one of the four sisters who sang the dancefloor classic, will re-record a special edition of the 1979 hit which will be get actonel released online on 9 November. Part of the proceeds will go towards pandemic response and strengthening health services around the world.

“This is a solidarity effort get actonel for a global concern”, said Ms. Sledge, speaking via video link. “We all - every tribe, every tongue, every nation, every people - have the banner of love over us, and desire to bring us together in this world to fight the kinds of things that come against get actonel who we are.” Get up everybody and sing The new version of ‘We Are Family’ will be accompanied by a video featuring celebrities, frontline heroes and members of the public. People worldwide are encouraged to join the #WeAreFamily campaign, launched on Monday, by recording videos with get actonel their close family and friends singing the song and then sharing their efforts on social media.

The World We Want organization, a global social impact enterprise, is also a partner in the campaign. Founder Natasha Mudhar said she was asked why get actonel the song was being released now, and not when the pandemic was first declared back in March. €œAnd the reason why now is that the pandemic that we are all facing is as relevant as it is today as it was five, six months ago”, she said. €œWith our music video that we’re producing…we want it to be kind of a real clarion call that this beautiful, real, global world family is coming together in unity, in solidarity, not just in 2020 but also looking to 2021 as well, to address any global health challenge that we ever face, including and beyond the COVID pandemic.”As soon as vaccines are licensed for use, the world will need as many syringes as doses of vaccine, said UNICEF on Monday.To begin preparations, this year, UNICEF will stockpile 520 million syringes in its warehouses, part of a larger get actonel plan to have a billion syringes ready for use through 2021, to guarantee initial supply and help ensure that syringes arrive before vaccines are distributed.During 2021, assuming there are enough doses of COVID-19 vaccines, UNICEF expects to deliver around a billion syringes to support COVID-19 vaccination efforts on top of the 620 million syringes the agency will purchase for other vaccination programmes, against other diseases such as measles, typhoid and more.Historic undertaking“Vaccinating the world against COVID-19 will be one of the largest mass undertakings in human history, and we will need to move as quickly as the vaccines can be produced,” said Henrietta Fore, UNICEF Executive Director.“In order to move fast later, we must move fast now.

By the end of the year, we will already have over half a billion syringes pre-positioned where they can be deployed quickly and cost effectively. That’s enough syringes to wrap around the get actonel world one and a half times.” In line with the longstanding collaboration between the two partners, the global vaccine alliance Gavi, will reimburse UNICEF for the cost of syringes and safety boxes, which will then be used for the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility (COVAX Facility) and for other Gavi-funded immunization programmes, if needed‘Safety boxes’ for disposalBesides syringes, UNICEF is also buying 5 million safety boxes so that used syringes and needles can be disposed in a safe manner by personnel at health facilities, reducing the risk of needle stick injuries and blood borne diseases.Every safety box carries 100 syringes. Accordingly, UNICEF said it get actonel was “bundling” the syringes with safety boxes to ensure enough safety boxes are available to go along with the syringes.Injection equipment such as syringes and safety boxes have a shelf life of five years, the agency notes. Lead-times for such equipment are also long as these items are bulky and need to be transported by sea freight.

Vaccines, which are heat sensitive, are normally transported more quickly by air.As the key procurement coordinator for Gavi, UNICEF is already the largest single vaccine buyer in the world, procuring more than 2 billion doses of vaccines annually get actonel for routine immunization and outbreak response on behalf of nearly 100 countries. Every year,UNICEF provides vaccines for almost half of the world’s children and procures and supplies around 600-800 million syringes for regular immunization programmes.Huge increaseCOVID-19 vaccines will likely treble or quadruple that number, depending on the number that are ultimately produced and secured by UNICEF.“Over two decades, Gavi has helped an additional 822 million children from the world’s most vulnerable countries access critical, life-saving vaccines”, said Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi. €œThis would not have been possible without our partnership with UNICEF, and it is this same collaboration that will be essential to Gavi’s work with the COVAX Facility.”To make sure that vaccines are transported and stored at the right temperature, UNICEF, along with the World Health Organization (WHO), is also mapping out existing cold chain equipment and storage capacity – in the private as well as public sector – and preparing necessary guidance for countries to receive vaccines.“We are doing everything we can to deliver these essential supplies efficiently, effectively and at the right get actonel temperature, as we already do so well all over the world,” Ms. Fore said.Even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, with support from Gavi and in partnership with WHO, UNICEF has been upgrading the existing cold chain equipment across health facilities in countries to ensure that vaccines remain safe and effective throughout their journey.Fridges boost health servicesSince 2017, over 40,000 cold-chain fridges, including solar fridges, have been installed across health facilities, mostly in Africa, said the agency.And in many countries, UNICEF is promoting solar technologies to help countries maintain supply chains.In South Sudan, the least electrified country in the world, where temperatures frequently exceed 40 degrees Celsius, more than 700 health facilities have been equipped by UNICEF with solar power fridges - around 50 per cent of all facilities nationwide..

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