skip to Main Content

How can i buy zofran

The coronavirus pandemic, social distancing, and resulting economic downturn have had considerable how can i buy zofran implications for the U.S. Health system, including health insurers. The pandemic caused a sizable decrease in the use of health care services during the first half of 2020, job losses appear to have led to coverage loss in the employer market and increases in Medicaid enrollment, and insurers projecting costs for next year must assess the relative effects how can i buy zofran of pent-up demand for delayed care, the continuing pandemic, and a potential vaccine.In this brief, we analyze data from 2013 to 2020 to examine how insurance markets performed through the first half of this year as the pandemic developed and worsened in the U.S. We use financial data reported by insurance companies to the National Association of Insurance Commissioners and compiled by Mark Farrah Associates to look at average medical loss ratios and gross margins in the individual (also known as non-group), fully-insured group (employer), and Medicare Advantage health insurance markets.

A more detailed description of each market is included in the Appendix.We find that, as of the end of June 2020, average margins have increased and loss ratios have dropped how can i buy zofran across the fully-insured group and Medicare Advantage markets, relative to the same time period in 2019. If administrative costs were roughly the same in 2020 as in 2019, these findings suggest higher profits for many insurers during the pandemic. Individual market loss ratios were already quite how can i buy zofran low and remained flat into 2020, suggesting continued profitability. The results for the individual and group markets indicate that commercial insurers are on track to owe substantial rebates to consumers again next year under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medical Loss Ratio provision.Gross MarginsOne way to assess insurer financial performance is to examine average gross margins per member per month, or the average amount by which premium income exceeds claims costs per enrollee in a given month.

Gross margins are an indicator of performance, but positive margins do not necessarily translate into profitability how can i buy zofran since they do not account for administrative expenses. However, a sharp increase in margins from one year to the next, without a commensurate increase in administrative costs, would indicate that these health insurance markets have become more profitable during the pandemic.Despite many insurers covering the full cost of coronavirus testing and treatment for their enrollees, insurers across most markets have seen their claims costs fall, and margins increase since the start of the pandemic, and relative to 2019. This is consistent with the sharp how can i buy zofran drop in utilization documented in other analyses.Gross margins among group market plans increased 22% (or $20 pmpm) through the second quarter of 2020 relative to the same period in 2019. Gross margins among Medicare Advantage plans also increased, rising 41% (or $64 pmpm) through the first six months of 2020 compared to gross margins at the same point last year.

(Gross margins per member per month tend to be higher for Medicare Advantage than for the other health insurance markets mainly because Medicare covers how can i buy zofran an older, sicker population with higher average costs). Prior to the pandemic, margins in the group and Medicare Advantage markets had grown gradually over recent years.Figure 1. Average Gross Margins Per Member Per Month Through June, 2013 – 2020​Individual market margins have been more volatile than the other private markets since the early years of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), as described in more depth in how can i buy zofran our earlier analyses of individual market financial performance. Individual market margins remained relatively stable through the first six months of 2020, decreasing just $4 per member per month, and remaining much higher than in the earlier years of the ACA.

These data suggest that insurers in the individual market remain financially healthy after a year and a half with no individual mandate penalty, even while the coronavirus outbreak worsened.Medical Loss RatiosAnother way to assess insurer financial performance is to look at medical loss ratios, which are the percent of premium income that how can i buy zofran insurers pay out in the form of medical claims. Generally, lower medical loss ratios mean that insurers have more income remaining, after paying medical costs, to use for administrative costs or keep as profits. Each health insurance market has different administrative needs and costs, so low loss ratios in how can i buy zofran one market do not necessarily mean that market is more profitable than another market. However, in a given market, if administrative costs hold mostly constant from one year to the next, a drop in loss ratios would imply that plans are becoming more profitable.Medical loss ratios are used in state and federal insurance regulation in a variety of ways.

In the commercial insurance (individual and group) markets, insurers must issue how can i buy zofran rebates to individuals and businesses if their loss ratios fail to reach minimum standards set by the ACA. Medicare Advantage insurers are required to report loss ratios at the contract level. They are also required to issue rebates to the federal government if they fall short how can i buy zofran of 85%, and are subject to additional penalties if they fail to meet loss ratio requirements for multiple consecutive years in a row.The loss ratios shown in this issue brief differ from the definition of MLR in the ACA, which makes some adjustments for quality improvement and taxes, and do not account for reinsurance, risk corridors, or risk adjustment payments. The chart below shows simple medical loss ratios, or the share of premium income that insurers pay out in claims, without any modifications (Figure 2).

Loss ratios in the Medicare Advantage how can i buy zofran market decreased 5 percentage points through the first six months of 2020 relative to the same period in 2019, and group market loss ratios decreased by an average of 3 percentage points relative to last year.Figure 2. Average Medical Loss Ratios Through June, 2013 – 2020​The individual market was the only market in which average loss ratios held steady from last year. Even so, loss ratios in the individual market were already quite low and insurers in that market are issuing record-large rebates to consumers based in how can i buy zofran part on their 2019 experience.DiscussionAlthough we cannot measure profits directly, all signs suggest that health insurers in most markets have become more profitable so far during the pandemic. Medicare Advantage and group health plans saw rising margins and falling loss ratios through June 2020, relative to the same time last year.

In contrast, margins and loss ratios among individual market insurers have generally remained flat through the second quarter compared to the same time how can i buy zofran last year, though insurers in this market already had high margins and low loss ratios last year.That insurers appear to be becoming more profitable during a pandemic may be counter-intuitive. Insurers were generally required to cover COVID-19 testing costs, and many also voluntarily covered the full cost of COVID-19 treatment for a period of time (see for example, announcements from UnitedHealthcare, CVSHealth (Aetna), and Cigna). Even with these increased pandemic-related expenses, though, many insurers saw claims costs fall as enrollees delayed or went without other types of health care due to social distancing restrictions, cancelation of elective procedures, or out of fear of how can i buy zofran contracting the virus. Job losses and economic instability may also affect health care utilization.The drop in utilization that has contributed to higher gross margins and lower medical loss ratios presents uncertainty and challenges for insurers, particularly given the unknown trajectory of the pandemic.

For Medicare Advantage insurers, these trends may result in plans offering more benefits than they currently do, which are popular and attract how can i buy zofran enrollees. But if insurers fall short in meeting required loss ratio requirements for multiple years, they face additional penalties, including the possibility of being terminated. In the individual and group markets, insurers are reporting pandemic-related uncertainty as they set premiums for next year, and insurers are making different assumptions about the extent to which utilization will rebound or health costs will change how can i buy zofran due to factors like the potential for widespread vaccination.Unless these patterns change substantially in late 2020, ACA medical loss ratio rebates in 2021 likely will be exceptionally large across commercial markets. Rebates to consumers are calculated using a three-year average of medical loss ratios, meaning that 2021 rebates will be based on insurer performance in 2018, 2019, and 2020.

In the individual market in particular, insurers were quite profitable in 2018 and 2019, so even if 2020 turns out to be a more average year, these insurers will how can i buy zofran likely owe large rebates to consumers. Group market insurers may also owe larger rebates to employers and employees than plans have in typical years, as loss ratios have dropped substantially. This may, in how can i buy zofran part, explain why many commercial insurers have volunteered to cover COVID-19 treatment costs, waived telemedicine cost-sharing, or expanded mental health services during the pandemic. By increasing their claims costs, insurers can proactively increase loss ratios and owe smaller rebates next year.What’s happened?.

We have received reports of fraudulent telephone calls from an individual or organisation claiming to be how can i buy zofran a representative of the Australian Digital Health Agency. It has been reported that the caller says they are calling from the “digital health agency” to enrol people to get a “health record”.What do I need to do?. If you receive a call from someone offering to enrol you for a “health record”, do not provide any personal information, hang up the call and report how can i buy zofran it to scamwatch.gov.au.The Australian Digital Health Agency will not telephone you with an offer to enrol you for a My Health Record. For more information on how to register for a My Health Record, visit myhealthrecord.gov.au.If you have shared your Medicare number with an unknown caller, report this to Services Australia who will place your details on a watch list to monitor for any compromise or misuse of your Medicare record.

Email [email protected] or phone 1800 941 how can i buy zofran 126. How could this affect me?. The caller is requesting personal information which could be used to steal your identity or commit financial fraud how can i buy zofran. Reports indicate that the caller is requesting the following personal information:• Medicare number• Date of birth• Email address• Mobile telephone number• Credit card detailsIdentity theft (also known as identity fraud) occurs when one person uses another individual’s personal information without their consent, usually for personal gain or to conduct further crimes.Where can I get more information?.

If you have how can i buy zofran shared personal information and believe you may be at risk, you can contact IDCARE, a not for profit organisation that provides assistance and support to victims of identity theft and other cybercrime. Visit idcare.org or telephone 1800 595 160.The Office of the Australian Information Commissioner provides information about identity fraud including what to do if your identity has been stolen.For additional information about scams, visit scamwatch.gov.au – you can also subscribe to a free alert service to receive updates about the latest scams.The Australian Cyber Security Centre also provides advice for individuals, a free alert service to help you understand the latest online threats and the ability to report online crimes via the ReportCyber page..

What is the generic for zofran

Zofran
Protonix
Spirulina
Brand
Small dose
20mg
1mg
Can you get a sample
Oral take
Oral take
Oral take
How long does work
On the market
Order online
Indian Pharmacy
Buy without prescription
Pharmacy
Online Drugstore
Pharmacy
Online price
No
Yes
Yes
How fast does work
12h
1h
23h
Buy with visa
On the market
On the market
Online Drugstore

Father and son, Paolo and Giovanni Camici talk to CardioPulse about what brings them together and what sets them apart Paolo Camici what is the generic for zofran MD is Professor of Cardiology at the Vita-Salute University San Raffaele in Milan, Italy. He previously held several senior roles in a long association with Hammersmith Hospital and Imperial College, London, UK.‘I was born in Genoa, a port in the north west of Italy and perhaps because of this I have always been attached to the sea and enjoyed water sports. My father was an ophthalmologist, my uncle was an internist, what is the generic for zofran and my grandfather was a general practitioner. Whenever the family got together around the table for Sunday lunch, they would always be talking about medicine, so its in my blood.When I was around four or five, my father was keen to go back to his native Tuscany, so we moved to Pisa and I completed my education in a liceo classico.

When it came to university, it seemed as natural as breathing to go what is the generic for zofran into medicine and I enrolled at medical school in Pisa. After gaining my medical degree I was not sure what I wanted to do. Psychiatry was popular at that time, but after a 6-month internship, I decided I did not want to be a psychiatrist. I was quite interested in research and physiology and I got an interview with Luigi Donato, a well-known professor for a position at the new Institute of what is the generic for zofran Clinical Physiology at the University of Pisa.

I was offered a job and assigned to Attilio Maseri who suggested I work with cardiologist Antonio L’Abbate. It was here that I spent several years while doing my internship in cardiology and internal medicine.In the late 1960s, I what is the generic for zofran first visited London as a tourist which was a big thing for me as the city was the centre of everything at that time and I was a huge fan of rock music and sang in a band. I later returned to the city in 1977 to train in clinical pharmacology, then in 1980 Maseri announced that he was leaving Pisa for London and a professorship at Hammersmith Hospital. This was a big blow to me as he was a big influence, so the following year, I began to commute between London and Pisa to carry out research.

I got to know physicist Terry Jones who oversaw the cyclotron unit at Hammersmith what is the generic for zofran Hospital and in 1990 he called me to say they were opening a new group for PET in cardiology and needed a young leader ready to come to London. It took about 10 s to say yes, and I took leave from my assistant professorship at Pisa and moved to London where I eventually received a Medical Research Council (MRC) tenure and was appointed to a professorship at Imperial College. Giovanni was what is the generic for zofran born in Pisa in 1976 and moved to the UK when he was 13. He attended the European School in Culham, Oxford where he did the European Baccalaureate before studying for a Biology BSc at Queen Mary University of London.

After he graduated, he worked in London for a bit and was later accepted as a member of Tom Lüscher’s group at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. That was 17 years ago and during that time what is the generic for zofran Giovanni completed a PhD in Fribourg and became Director of the Center for Molecular Cardiology. Although I discussed career options when Giovanni was looking to specialize in biological sciences, I wanted him to make his own decisions. I did not want him to be influenced by me in the way I was influenced by my own family or in the way that some children are influenced by parents who think they know what is best for what is the generic for zofran their child.

Although our work roles are different, there are some similarities, but I think what we have in common is our attitude towards working life in that the human aspect is very important for us. We both find it easy to communicate and get on well with people and although we love our work and enjoy teaching and research, we are not obsessed with it and we make time for other things such as hobbies, family, and friends.I do not think that his career was necessarily easier than mine because I feel there were more options for me, and the field was not as competitive as it is today. We have never looked for the opportunity to work together, but of course we talk about science and our work and exchange ideas what is the generic for zofran. One of the main differences I see with my son’s life in comparison to mine is that he is a much better father than I was, in that he devotes much more time to his family than I did.

We are good friends as father and son and have many hobbies in common such what is the generic for zofran as vintage cars and music. And together with my daughter Valeria, Giovanni’s sister, who chose a career as a music teacher and a singer, we get along very well and enjoy each other’s company.Giovanni Camici PhD spent his early years in Italy and later attended school and university in England. He is the Director of the Center for Molecular Cardiology at the University of Zurich which was set up in 2015 to focus on different aspects of cardiovascular research, including vascular ageing and stroke. €˜When I was growing up, I thought the work that my father and relatives did was fascinating what is the generic for zofran.

I was always attracted by academia in general and although it is very different now, I still enjoy it and find it as fascinating as when I was a child. By the time I moved what is the generic for zofran to England in 1990, I had already been exposed to the world of science and biology because of my father’s work as a clinician-scientist. You could say I had the concept of science running through my veins from previous generations. Thanks to an inspiring biology teacher at school, I began to enjoy science for the first time on my own account and that continued, although I was not so good at subjects such as chemistry.

At college in London, I was initially interested in neuroscience and general physiology what is the generic for zofran. However, when I finished university, I did a work placement for 18 months in a muscular dystrophy laboratory at Imperial College and I began to have doubts whether neuroscience was for me. My intention was to return to Italy, but after I got an offer to work in the research group of Thomas Lüscher, what is the generic for zofran that was it.When I look back over the last 17 years in Zurich, I believe I have made considerable progress according to the usual parameters of success. However, the most important goal in life is to be happy with what I do, and I am flattered to be paid to use my brain to produce knowledge.

One of the things I am most proud of, is having set up the new laboratory in 2015. Before this, we were based on a different campus and although it took me a year’s work, I am proud of that and of having become the Director what is the generic for zofran. Molecular cardiology is a discipline which is of great relevance to humanity. Although we have made major advances, cardiovascular diseases are still the main cause of death worldwide and this means there is still a huge need for progress in the field what is the generic for zofran and this is a strong motivation for me.

I have a very special relationship with my father in the sense that we have tended to go our own way as far as work is concerned. However, this has changed quite a lot since I became a professor, so over the last 3 or 4 years, we have developed a much closer what is the generic for zofran relationship professionally. In the past, he wanted me to choose my own way, although he was always there for important things. I think he also wanted to avoid using his high profile and professional reputation to influence my career too much.

Now I consult him and ask for advice much more often, although my reference professionally remains Professor Lüscher.Its difficult to compare my career path with that of my father, but one thing I am aware of is how much society is now largely governed by interests what is the generic for zofran that concern money and this means there isn’t much space for the academic environment. Universities are non-profit organizations so there is less funding for them and less opportunity to work in them. Its OK in the early stages of your what is the generic for zofran career, but there is a pyramid structure with very few positions available and as soon as you have a PhD it really is a huge struggle to get on.You also need to be a very complete and well-rounded person to be able to do well in science. I do not know of any other jobs where you have to decide what to do, find the money to do it, carry out the project and sell it.

Then if it does not work, you are out. In comparison my father gained a permanent academic position in his mid-30s and had opportunities and security which would be impossible for my generation what is the generic for zofran. We certainly have more technological means compared to the past, but things are much more complex than they were two or three decades ago. If I was asked for advice, I would probably recommend the career of a physician what is the generic for zofran over that of a researcher because you can be a physician at many different levels and in different situations and you can choose whether to do research or not.

For a full-time scientist however, the struggle is a bit too harsh and I cannot see it getting better in the future unless people start to understand that investing in science is important. The reality is that you must raise funds to do science, to collect data and to publish. It really is publish or perish, its a vicious circle.Although I do not think it was always easy for my father to keep his distance and not to come and lend a hand at times in my what is the generic for zofran career, I cannot imagine that if I had grown up next to him that I would have become the person I am, maybe I would have sweated a bit less, but I do not think I would have become as confident or as well-developed. Although I did not always understand it at the time, I am thankful to my father for this now and I can appreciate what he did for me’.

Conflict of what is the generic for zofran interest. None declared. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights what is the generic for zofran reserved.

© The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, what is the generic for zofran please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com.LVTS is the present avatar of a long standing and highly productive multidisciplinary cardiovascular French institute created in 2005 by Dr Jean-Baptiste Michel and Dr Martine Jandrot-Perrus and headed since 2014 by Dr Didier Letourneur (Director) and Dr Antonino Nicoletti (Deputy Director). Https://lvts.fr/ With 150 tenured researchers and engineers and around 60 post-docs, Master and PhD students (Figure 1), Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS) is affiliated with Inserm and CNRS, the Paris University and University Paris 13 and the Greater Paris University Hospitals (AP-HP).

Figure 1Members of LVTS.Figure 1Members of LVTS.The Institute is located north of Paris what is the generic for zofran on the Bichat campus that harbours a 900-bed university hospital, a medical school, and a research hub. This location has fostered long-lasting and highly dynamic interactions between the institute and the hospital. These have led to numerous common research projects and the establishment of a cardiovascular what is the generic for zofran (CV) biobank from the collection of a large range of human samples (blood, tissue, and cells) from different forms of CV diseases, including atherothrombotic and non-atherothrombotic diseases (notably thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms, carotid artery diseases). The CV biobanking activities are integrated in the national Biobank network (Biobank Infrastructure), which are partners of EU BBMRI (www.bbmri.eu).LVTS has a pluri- and transdisciplinary approach with the objective to fight vascular pathologies.

The medical questions raised pertain to new pathophysiological targets, in order to advance diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The general objectives are the understanding of the what is the generic for zofran physiological mechanisms by basic science approaches but also through large clinical trials, development of new diagnostic (markers and imaging), and new therapeutic/biomaterial strategies. Identification of new targets, development of new molecules, validated by clinical trials. To carry out these projects, translational human and technological skills include clinical databases and assays, translational clinical investigations (carotid stenosis, aneurysms, and dissections of the ascending aorta, Biocore), human tissue and cell biobanks, numerous experimental what is the generic for zofran models of disease (transgenic mice, rats, rabbits), new methods in molecular and cell biology (genetics and genomics, proteomics, protein engineering, flow cytometry), chemistry of biopolymers, elaboration of biomaterials and nano systems, and imaging technologies in small animals and in humans [nuclear imaging, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)].Research is performed through six teams (Figure 2).

Their current research topics are briefly presented in the following paragraphs. Figure 2LVTS teams, their leaders, and their research areas.Figure 2LVTS teams, their leaders, and their research areas. Team 1The Cardiovascular what is the generic for zofran Immunobiology team (Team 1, G. Caligiuri and A.

Nicoletti, Refs1–5) works on the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with diseased vessels and designs new vasculoprotective what is the generic for zofran immune interventions. The main recent contributions from this team have been. The decryption of local immune responses around atherothrombotic vessels what is the generic for zofran and description of new pathogenic immune pathways in vascular diseases. We have shown that recruited neutrophils can dictate the issue of complicated atheroma and that their activity is enhanced at sites of plaque erosion and also by infectious agents that harbour tropism for atherothrombotic sites.

We are currently trying to dampen the myeloid cell-driven vascular damage in the brain, the heart, the lungs, and the intestine, upon ischaemia–reperfusion. We are what is the generic for zofran investigating the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases can deflect the innate immune response thereby impacting on the issue of atherothrombotic events.The demonstration that CD31 is a pacification molecule of the blood vessel interface thereby showing that it is a promising molecular target in inflammatory and thrombotic diseases. We have filed seven patents, six licensed to Tridek-One Therapeutics, a spin-off of our laboratory that aims at developing first-in-class immunomodulatory products targeting the CD31 pathway to down-modulate inappropriate immune responses.The revision of the processes initiating atherogenesis and vascular/valvular calcifications where we have shown that endothelial breaches in territories subjected to high haemodynamic stress allow the entry of red blood cells and constitute a key pathogenic mechanism underlying atherogenesis. In addition to what is the generic for zofran mechanical stress, we are exploring the role of temperature, a neglected feature of inflammation.

We have found that temperature is different at sites of atherogenesis and can profoundly impact vascular and immune cell biology. Team 2The Vascular structural diseases team (Team 2, G. Jondeau and C what is the generic for zofran. Boileau, Refs6–11) focuses on the study of pathophysiogenic mechanisms associated with aortic aneurysms, valves and coronary artery disease (CAD) in an uninterrupted continuum from genetics to pathophysiology and patient care.

The team what is the generic for zofran focuses on inherited human model diseases. Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAD) in Marfan’s syndrome and associated diseases and autosomal dominant hypercholesterolaemia. These models also provide means to identify the genetic modifiers that account for great clinical variability, between and within families. The identification of these what is the generic for zofran modifiers should enable identification of predictors of disease aggressiveness.

Research relies on a close collaboration with the National reference Center for Marfan syndrome (www.marfan.fr) and is part of the national large-scale translational research project CHOPIN (CHolesterol Personalized Innovation, https://rhuchopin.fr/). In TAAD, we developed the paradigm shift that TGF-β canonical pathway has a protective effect what is the generic for zofran during aneurysm formation. We are leaders in the discovery of new disease genes involved in familial TAAD. By cross-mapping the results of several genome-wide studies, we detected the existence and mapped 9 modifier loci that are being investigated.In familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), we postulated further genetic heterogeneity and demonstrated the role of rare GOF mutations in the PCSK9 gene.

Our work identified a totally unrecognized actor of cholesterol homeostasis and opened up a new field what is the generic for zofran of basic research and the development of anti-PCSK9 agents. Another paradigm shift showed that mutations in the APOE gene resulted in FH, as well as the existence of other FH disease genes. Team 3The Cardiovascular what is the generic for zofran Bio-Engineering team (Team 3, D. Letourneur, Refs12–18) is well-integrated in LVTS research, industrial development, clinical translation, and education.

The team has a long-standing expertise in biomaterials and nanotechnologies and is developing research in e-health objects.Biomaterials—3D porous scaffolds for tissue engineering Innovative technology enables the development of different polysaccharide scaffolds for bone regeneration, skin regeneration, three-dimensional cell culture, and cellular or molecular delivery. Thanks to multiphysic and multiscale characterizations, our goal is to what is the generic for zofran develop biomaterials for tissue regeneration in vivo. Based on four patents, a company (SILTISS) was created for industrial transfer and is expected to launch clinical trials in 2021.Nanotechnologies for imaging and therapy We have developed a GMP fucoidan and several nanosystems for the early diagnosis of CV diseases with clinical imaging and the establishment of appropriate therapeutic strategies. Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides and previous studies have demonstrated the capacity of fucoidan to bind to P-selectin as a relevant marker of what is the generic for zofran atherothrombosis and endothelial ischaemia.

A GMP microdose radiopharmaceutical based on 99mTc-fucoidan has been validated in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of human thrombosis and heart ischaemia (FP7-NMP-Large-6-‘Nanoathero’). We focus on three major areas. The development of soft nanosystems of which the core what is the generic for zofran materials are polysaccharides. These are used as contrast agents for molecular imaging of CV disease by computed tomography (CT), MRI, SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasonography, optical imaging, or some combination of these modalities.The development of ligands able to aim nanoparticles at molecular relevant targets, such as fucoidan for P-selectin.The development of therapeutic strategies by optimizing loading capacities and physicochemical properties well adapted to antioxidative molecules.

Team 4The what is the generic for zofran Cardiovascular imaging team (Team 4, F. Rouzet, Refs19–23) aims at developing imaging agents and procedures from preclinical proof of concept to clinical validation. The preclinical imaging platform gathers all the modalities dedicated to small animals (ultrasounds, MRI, PET/MRI, SPECT/CT, and a radiolabelling lab) and is a member of the French Life Imaging network. Our team has developed expertise in radiolabelling probes, nanoparticles, or cells with gamma and positron emitters (Gallium-68 what is the generic for zofran and Copper-64) and more recently in multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR).

Our research is fuelled by a strong interaction with other teams of LVTS for the development of novel imaging agents and takes advantage of the wide range of fully characterized animal models available onsite for in vivo validation (Figure 3). Figure 3Radiolabelled Fucoidan SPECT/CT in a rat model what is the generic for zofran of myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion. Fucoidan is a P-selectin-targeted imaging agent designed to identify the biological imprint of a transient ischaemic episode a few hours after its resolution. A focal uptake of the imaging agent is detectable at the left ventricular apex (green arrow) 2 h after reperfusion (left what is the generic for zofran panel).

Immunostaining demonstrates the endothelial expression of P-selectin (green fluorescence) at the endothelial surface (lectin) in the area at risk (right panel).Figure 3Radiolabelled Fucoidan SPECT/CT in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion. Fucoidan is a P-selectin-targeted imaging agent designed to identify the biological imprint of a transient ischaemic episode a few hours after its resolution. A focal uptake of the imaging agent is detectable at the what is the generic for zofran left ventricular apex (green arrow) 2 h after reperfusion (left panel). Immunostaining demonstrates the endothelial expression of P-selectin (green fluorescence) at the endothelial surface (lectin) in the area at risk (right panel).The clinical research including preliminary studies in humans takes place at Bichat hospital.

The proximity between LVTS and the hospital facilitates what is the generic for zofran the interplay between clinical challenges and fundamental research. The main research topics of the team are centred on, biological activities associated with arterial thrombi such as pro-coagulant activity and serine proteases,tracking or detection of cells involved in inflammation/infection, andthree tissue biomechanical properties obtained from MR elastography.We are currently developing a multimodal approach combining the molecular information derived from PET, tissue contrast from MRI, and viscoelastic properties from MR elastography. This comprehensive characterization is developed in animal models of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis and will be translated to humans with the installation of a clinical PET/MR system by the end of 2020. Team 5The what is the generic for zofran atherothrombotic disease in heart and brain team (Team 5, P.G.

Steg, Refs24–30) focuses on clinical epidemiology of CAD (P. Gabriel Steg) and what is the generic for zofran stroke (P. Amarenco), via the design, conduct and analysis of large-scale observational registries and of randomized clinical trials. The team recently received French government funding for an integrated research programme on innovations in atherothrombosis science (RHU IVASC, www.ivasc.eu) which involves ongoing epidemiologic studies and interventional studies to establish the relationship(s) between chronic periodontitis, sleep disordered breathing, and atherothrombosis.

The TIA.org registry established the benefit of rapid management of transient ischaemic attacks through specialized centres worldwide, initially and at 5-year follow-up.Recent trials have studied the impact of lipid lowering interventions after acute coronary syndromes (using alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor, in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial) or after ischaemic stroke in patients with atherothrombosis (comparing two target LDL cholesterol levels, in the TST trial which what is the generic for zofran established the clinical benefit of targeting LDL to <70 mg/dL rather than 100 mg/dL). A large-scale trial, THEMIS (the largest randomized trial in diabetes) established the value of dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and aspirin in patients with stable CAD and diabetes, particularly if they have a prior history of percutaneous coronary intervention. Team 6The Haemostasis, Thrombo-Inflammation, Neurovascular Repair what is the generic for zofran team (Team 6, M.C. Bouton and N.

Kubis, Refs31–35) focuses its research on the interaction between actors of haemostasis and thrombo-inflammation in the vessel wall to extend knowledge on cardio- and neurovascular diseases. The main themes of the what is the generic for zofran team are. Heart failure. Increased protease activities within the myocardium is involved in the development of heart failure what is the generic for zofran.

We have previously demonstrated that protease nexin-1, a major tissue antiprotease, constitutes a key factor in the responses of vessels to injury, via its antithrombotic and antifibrinolytic properties. We now aim to determine its potential role in cardiac pathophysiology.Intracranial aneurysm. The pathophysiology evolution of intracranial aneurysm events seems driven by complex cellular interactions between different cell types including platelets, leucocytes, and vascular cells what is the generic for zofran. Our main objective is to decipher platelet mechanisms during intracranial aneurysm formation and rupture.Stroke.

We investigate what is the generic for zofran how cellular actors of inflammation and molecular actors of haemostasis contribute to the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke. Our approach combines the analysis of thrombi and plasma samples recovered from stroke patients (Figure 4), and the use of animal models. We showed that thrombi from patients have thrombolysis- resistant areas,large vessel occlusion triggers downstream micro thrombosis, andDNAse can help improve thrombolysis. Figure 4Thrombus retrieved what is the generic for zofran by mechanical thrombectomy from patients with ischaemic stroke.

Platelets (green) and neutrophils (red) immunostaining.Figure 4Thrombus retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy from patients with ischaemic stroke. Platelets (green) and neutrophils (red) immunostaining.Our work has set the basis for the development of what is the generic for zofran clinical trials developing a personalized stroke care in emergency situations (BOOSTER consortium) and testing the efficacy of new drugs such as a novel anti-platelet drug (Phase Ib/IIa clinical trial ACTIMIS, Acticor Biotech, a spin-off company located in LVTS and created by Dr Martine Jandrot-Perrus, https://acticor-biotech.com/). ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material at European Heart Journal online.Conflict of interest. None declared.

Published on behalf of what is the generic for zofran the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) what is the generic for zofran 2020. For permissions, please email.

Father and how can i buy zofran son, Paolo and Giovanni Camici talk to CardioPulse about what brings them together and what sets them apart Paolo Camici MD is Professor of Cardiology at the Vita-Salute University San Raffaele in Milan, Italy. He previously held several senior roles in a long association with Hammersmith Hospital and Imperial College, London, UK.‘I was born in Genoa, a port in the north west of Italy and perhaps because of this I have always been attached to the sea and enjoyed water sports. My father was an ophthalmologist, my uncle was an internist, and how can i buy zofran my grandfather was a general practitioner. Whenever the family got together around the table for Sunday lunch, they would always be talking about medicine, so its in my blood.When I was around four or five, my father was keen to go back to his native Tuscany, so we moved to Pisa and I completed my education in a liceo classico. When it came to how can i buy zofran university, it seemed as natural as breathing to go into medicine and I enrolled at medical school in Pisa.

After gaining my medical degree I was not sure what I wanted to do. Psychiatry was popular at that time, but after a 6-month internship, I decided I did not want to be a psychiatrist. I was quite interested in research and physiology and I got an interview with Luigi Donato, a well-known professor for a position at the new Institute of how can i buy zofran Clinical Physiology at the University of Pisa. I was offered a job and assigned to Attilio Maseri who suggested I work with cardiologist Antonio L’Abbate. It was here that I spent several years while doing my internship in cardiology and internal medicine.In the late 1960s, I first visited London as a tourist which was a big thing for me as how can i buy zofran the city was the centre of everything at that time and I was a huge fan of rock music and sang in a band.

I later returned to the city in 1977 to train in clinical pharmacology, then in 1980 Maseri announced that he was leaving Pisa for London and a professorship at Hammersmith Hospital. This was a big blow to me as he was a big influence, so the following year, I began to commute between London and Pisa to carry out research. I got to know physicist Terry Jones who oversaw the cyclotron unit at Hammersmith Hospital and in 1990 he called me to say they were opening a new group for PET in how can i buy zofran cardiology and needed a young leader ready to come to London. It took about 10 s to say yes, and I took leave from my assistant professorship at Pisa and moved to London where I eventually received a Medical Research Council (MRC) tenure and was appointed to a professorship at Imperial College. Giovanni was born in Pisa in 1976 and moved to the UK how can i buy zofran when he was 13.

He attended the European School in Culham, Oxford where he did the European Baccalaureate before studying for a Biology BSc at Queen Mary University of London. After he graduated, he worked in London for a bit and was later accepted as a member of Tom Lüscher’s group at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. That was 17 years ago and during that how can i buy zofran time Giovanni completed a PhD in Fribourg and became Director of the Center for Molecular Cardiology. Although I discussed career options when Giovanni was looking to specialize in biological sciences, I wanted him to make his own decisions. I did not want him to be influenced by me in the way I was influenced by my own family or in the way that some children are influenced by how can i buy zofran parents who think they know what is best for their child.

Although our work roles are different, there are some similarities, but I think what we have in common is our attitude towards working life in that the human aspect is very important for us. We both find it easy to communicate and get on well with people and although we love our work and enjoy teaching and research, we are not obsessed with it and we make time for other things such as hobbies, family, and friends.I do not think that his career was necessarily easier than mine because I feel there were more options for me, and the field was not as competitive as it is today. We have never looked for the opportunity to work together, but of course we how can i buy zofran talk about science and our work and exchange ideas. One of the main differences I see with my son’s life in comparison to mine is that he is a much better father than I was, in that he devotes much more time to his family than I did. We are good friends as father and son and have many hobbies in common such as vintage how can i buy zofran cars and music.

And together with my daughter Valeria, Giovanni’s sister, who chose a career as a music teacher and a singer, we get along very well and enjoy each other’s company.Giovanni Camici PhD spent his early years in Italy and later attended school and university in England. He is the Director of the Center for Molecular Cardiology at the University of Zurich which was set up in 2015 to focus on different aspects of cardiovascular research, including vascular ageing and stroke. €˜When I was growing up, I thought how can i buy zofran the work that my father and relatives did was fascinating. I was always attracted by academia in general and although it is very different now, I still enjoy it and find it as fascinating as when I was a child. By the time I moved to England in 1990, I had already been exposed to the world of science and biology because of my father’s work how can i buy zofran as a clinician-scientist.

You could say I had the concept of science running through my veins from previous generations. Thanks to an inspiring biology teacher at school, I began to enjoy science for the first time on my own account and that continued, although I was not so good at subjects such as chemistry. At college in London, I was initially interested in neuroscience how can i buy zofran and general physiology. However, when I finished university, I did a work placement for 18 months in a muscular dystrophy laboratory at Imperial College and I began to have doubts whether neuroscience was for me. My intention was to return to Italy, but after I got an offer to how can i buy zofran work in the research group of Thomas Lüscher, that was it.When I look back over the last 17 years in Zurich, I believe I have made considerable progress according to the usual parameters of success.

However, the most important goal in life is to be happy with what I do, and I am flattered to be paid to use my brain to produce knowledge. One of the things I am most proud of, is having set up the new laboratory in 2015. Before this, we were based on a different campus how can i buy zofran and although it took me a year’s work, I am proud of that and of having become the Director. Molecular cardiology is a discipline which is of great relevance to humanity. Although we have made major advances, cardiovascular diseases are still the main cause of death worldwide and this means how can i buy zofran there is still a huge need for progress in the field and this is a strong motivation for me.

I have a very special relationship with my father in the sense that we have tended to go our own way as far as work is concerned. However, this has changed quite a lot since how can i buy zofran I became a professor, so over the last 3 or 4 years, we have developed a much closer relationship professionally. In the past, he wanted me to choose my own way, although he was always there for important things. I think he also wanted to avoid using his high profile and professional reputation to influence my career too much. Now I consult him and ask for advice much more often, although my reference professionally remains Professor Lüscher.Its difficult to compare my career path with that of my father, but one thing I am aware of is how much society is now largely governed by interests that concern money and this means there isn’t much space how can i buy zofran for the academic environment.

Universities are non-profit organizations so there is less funding for them and less opportunity to work in them. Its OK in the early stages of your career, but there is a pyramid structure with very few positions available and as soon as you have a PhD it really is a huge struggle to get on.You also need to be a very complete and well-rounded person to be able to do how can i buy zofran well in science. I do not know of any other jobs where you have to decide what to do, find the money to do it, carry out the project and sell it. Then if it does not work, you are out. In comparison my father gained a permanent academic position in his mid-30s how can i buy zofran and had opportunities and security which would be impossible for my generation.

We certainly have more technological means compared to the past, but things are much more complex than they were two or three decades ago. If I was asked for advice, I how can i buy zofran would probably recommend the career of a physician over that of a researcher because you can be a physician at many different levels and in different situations and you can choose whether to do research or not. For a full-time scientist however, the struggle is a bit too harsh and I cannot see it getting better in the future unless people start to understand that investing in science is important. The reality is that you must raise funds to do science, to collect data and to publish. It really is publish or perish, its a vicious circle.Although how can i buy zofran I do not think it was always easy for my father to keep his distance and not to come and lend a hand at times in my career, I cannot imagine that if I had grown up next to him that I would have become the person I am, maybe I would have sweated a bit less, but I do not think I would have become as confident or as well-developed.

Although I did not always understand it at the time, I am thankful to my father for this now and I can appreciate what he did for me’. Conflict of how can i buy zofran interest. None declared. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights how can i buy zofran reserved.

© The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, how can i buy zofran please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com.LVTS is the present avatar of a long standing and highly productive multidisciplinary cardiovascular French institute created in 2005 by Dr Jean-Baptiste Michel and Dr Martine Jandrot-Perrus and headed since 2014 by Dr Didier Letourneur (Director) and Dr Antonino Nicoletti (Deputy Director). Https://lvts.fr/ With 150 tenured researchers and engineers and around 60 post-docs, Master and PhD students (Figure 1), Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS) is affiliated with Inserm and CNRS, the Paris University and University Paris 13 and the Greater Paris University Hospitals (AP-HP). Figure 1Members of LVTS.Figure 1Members of LVTS.The Institute is located north of Paris on the Bichat campus that harbours a 900-bed university how can i buy zofran hospital, a medical school, and a research hub.

This location has fostered long-lasting and highly dynamic interactions between the institute and the hospital. These have led to numerous common research projects and the establishment of a cardiovascular (CV) biobank from the collection of a how can i buy zofran large range of human samples (blood, tissue, and cells) from different forms of CV diseases, including atherothrombotic and non-atherothrombotic diseases (notably thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms, carotid artery diseases). The CV biobanking activities are integrated in the national Biobank network (Biobank Infrastructure), which are partners of EU BBMRI (www.bbmri.eu).LVTS has a pluri- and transdisciplinary approach with the objective to fight vascular pathologies. The medical questions raised pertain to new pathophysiological targets, in order to advance diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The general objectives are the understanding of the physiological mechanisms by basic science approaches but also through how can i buy zofran large clinical trials, development of new diagnostic (markers and imaging), and new therapeutic/biomaterial strategies.

Identification of new targets, development of new molecules, validated by clinical trials. To carry out these projects, translational human and technological how can i buy zofran skills include clinical databases and assays, translational clinical investigations (carotid stenosis, aneurysms, and dissections of the ascending aorta, Biocore), human tissue and cell biobanks, numerous experimental models of disease (transgenic mice, rats, rabbits), new methods in molecular and cell biology (genetics and genomics, proteomics, protein engineering, flow cytometry), chemistry of biopolymers, elaboration of biomaterials and nano systems, and imaging technologies in small animals and in humans [nuclear imaging, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)].Research is performed through six teams (Figure 2). Their current research topics are briefly presented in the following paragraphs. Figure 2LVTS teams, their leaders, and their research areas.Figure 2LVTS teams, their leaders, and their research areas. Team 1The Cardiovascular Immunobiology team (Team 1, how can i buy zofran G.

Caligiuri and A. Nicoletti, Refs1–5) works on the mechanisms by which the how can i buy zofran immune system interacts with diseased vessels and designs new vasculoprotective immune interventions. The main recent contributions from this team have been. The decryption how can i buy zofran of local immune responses around atherothrombotic vessels and description of new pathogenic immune pathways in vascular diseases. We have shown that recruited neutrophils can dictate the issue of complicated atheroma and that their activity is enhanced at sites of plaque erosion and also by infectious agents that harbour tropism for atherothrombotic sites.

We are currently trying to dampen the myeloid cell-driven vascular damage in the brain, the heart, the lungs, and the intestine, upon ischaemia–reperfusion. We are investigating the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases can deflect the innate immune response thereby impacting how can i buy zofran on the issue of atherothrombotic events.The demonstration that CD31 is a pacification molecule of the blood vessel interface thereby showing that it is a promising molecular target in inflammatory and thrombotic diseases. We have filed seven patents, six licensed to Tridek-One Therapeutics, a spin-off of our laboratory that aims at developing first-in-class immunomodulatory products targeting the CD31 pathway to down-modulate inappropriate immune responses.The revision of the processes initiating atherogenesis and vascular/valvular calcifications where we have shown that endothelial breaches in territories subjected to high haemodynamic stress allow the entry of red blood cells and constitute a key pathogenic mechanism underlying atherogenesis. In addition to how can i buy zofran mechanical stress, we are exploring the role of temperature, a neglected feature of inflammation. We have found that temperature is different at sites of atherogenesis and can profoundly impact vascular and immune cell biology.

Team 2The Vascular structural diseases team (Team 2, G. Jondeau and how can i buy zofran C. Boileau, Refs6–11) focuses on the study of pathophysiogenic mechanisms associated with aortic aneurysms, valves and coronary artery disease (CAD) in an uninterrupted continuum from genetics to pathophysiology and patient care. The team focuses on inherited human model diseases how can i buy zofran. Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAD) in Marfan’s syndrome and associated diseases and autosomal dominant hypercholesterolaemia.

These models also provide means to identify the genetic modifiers that account for great clinical variability, between and within families. The identification of these modifiers should how can i buy zofran enable identification of predictors of disease aggressiveness. Research relies on a close collaboration with the National reference Center for Marfan syndrome (www.marfan.fr) and is part of the national large-scale translational research project CHOPIN (CHolesterol Personalized Innovation, https://rhuchopin.fr/). In TAAD, we developed the paradigm shift how can i buy zofran that TGF-β canonical pathway has a protective effect during aneurysm formation. We are leaders in the discovery of new disease genes involved in familial TAAD.

By cross-mapping the results of several genome-wide studies, we detected the existence and mapped 9 modifier loci that are being investigated.In familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), we postulated further genetic heterogeneity and demonstrated the role of rare GOF mutations in the PCSK9 gene. Our work how can i buy zofran identified a totally unrecognized actor of cholesterol homeostasis and opened up a new field of basic research and the development of anti-PCSK9 agents. Another paradigm shift showed that mutations in the APOE gene resulted in FH, as well as the existence of other FH disease genes. Team 3The Cardiovascular Bio-Engineering team (Team 3, D how can i buy zofran. Letourneur, Refs12–18) is well-integrated in LVTS research, industrial development, clinical translation, and education.

The team has a long-standing expertise in biomaterials and nanotechnologies and is developing research in e-health objects.Biomaterials—3D porous scaffolds for tissue engineering Innovative technology enables the development of different polysaccharide scaffolds for bone regeneration, skin regeneration, three-dimensional cell culture, and cellular or molecular delivery. Thanks to multiphysic and multiscale characterizations, our goal is to develop biomaterials for tissue how can i buy zofran regeneration in vivo. Based on four patents, a company (SILTISS) was created for industrial transfer and is expected to launch clinical trials in 2021.Nanotechnologies for imaging and therapy We have developed a GMP fucoidan and several nanosystems for the early diagnosis of CV diseases with clinical imaging and the establishment of appropriate therapeutic strategies. Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides and previous studies have how can i buy zofran demonstrated the capacity of fucoidan to bind to P-selectin as a relevant marker of atherothrombosis and endothelial ischaemia. A GMP microdose radiopharmaceutical based on 99mTc-fucoidan has been validated in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of human thrombosis and heart ischaemia (FP7-NMP-Large-6-‘Nanoathero’).

We focus on three major areas. The development of soft how can i buy zofran nanosystems of which the core materials are polysaccharides. These are used as contrast agents for molecular imaging of CV disease by computed tomography (CT), MRI, SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasonography, optical imaging, or some combination of these modalities.The development of ligands able to aim nanoparticles at molecular relevant targets, such as fucoidan for P-selectin.The development of therapeutic strategies by optimizing loading capacities and physicochemical properties well adapted to antioxidative molecules. Team 4The Cardiovascular imaging team how can i buy zofran (Team 4, F. Rouzet, Refs19–23) aims at developing imaging agents and procedures from preclinical proof of concept to clinical validation.

The preclinical imaging platform gathers all the modalities dedicated to small animals (ultrasounds, MRI, PET/MRI, SPECT/CT, and a radiolabelling lab) and is a member of the French Life Imaging network. Our team has developed expertise in radiolabelling how can i buy zofran probes, nanoparticles, or cells with gamma and positron emitters (Gallium-68 and Copper-64) and more recently in multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR). Our research is fuelled by a strong interaction with other teams of LVTS for the development of novel imaging agents and takes advantage of the wide range of fully characterized animal models available onsite for in vivo validation (Figure 3). Figure 3Radiolabelled Fucoidan how can i buy zofran SPECT/CT in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion. Fucoidan is a P-selectin-targeted imaging agent designed to identify the biological imprint of a transient ischaemic episode a few hours after its resolution.

A focal uptake of the imaging agent is detectable at the left ventricular apex (green arrow) 2 h after reperfusion (left how can i buy zofran panel). Immunostaining demonstrates the endothelial expression of P-selectin (green fluorescence) at the endothelial surface (lectin) in the area at risk (right panel).Figure 3Radiolabelled Fucoidan SPECT/CT in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion. Fucoidan is a P-selectin-targeted imaging agent designed to identify the biological imprint of a transient ischaemic episode a few hours after its resolution. A focal uptake of the imaging agent is detectable how can i buy zofran at the left ventricular apex (green arrow) 2 h after reperfusion (left panel). Immunostaining demonstrates the endothelial expression of P-selectin (green fluorescence) at the endothelial surface (lectin) in the area at risk (right panel).The clinical research including preliminary studies in humans takes place at Bichat hospital.

The proximity between LVTS and the hospital facilitates the interplay between clinical challenges how can i buy zofran and fundamental research. The main research topics of the team are centred on, biological activities associated with arterial thrombi such as pro-coagulant activity and serine proteases,tracking or detection of cells involved in inflammation/infection, andthree tissue biomechanical properties obtained from MR elastography.We are currently developing a multimodal approach combining the molecular information derived from PET, tissue contrast from MRI, and viscoelastic properties from MR elastography. This comprehensive characterization is developed in animal models of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis and will be translated to humans with the installation of a clinical PET/MR system by the end of 2020. Team 5The how can i buy zofran atherothrombotic disease in heart and brain team (Team 5, P.G. Steg, Refs24–30) focuses on clinical epidemiology of CAD (P.

Gabriel Steg) and stroke (P how can i buy zofran. Amarenco), via the design, conduct and analysis of large-scale observational registries and of randomized clinical trials. The team recently received French government funding for an integrated research programme on innovations in atherothrombosis science (RHU IVASC, www.ivasc.eu) which involves ongoing epidemiologic studies and interventional studies to establish the relationship(s) between chronic periodontitis, sleep disordered breathing, and atherothrombosis. The TIA.org registry established how can i buy zofran the benefit of rapid management of transient ischaemic attacks through specialized centres worldwide, initially and at 5-year follow-up.Recent trials have studied the impact of lipid lowering interventions after acute coronary syndromes (using alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor, in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial) or after ischaemic stroke in patients with atherothrombosis (comparing two target LDL cholesterol levels, in the TST trial which established the clinical benefit of targeting LDL to <70 mg/dL rather than 100 mg/dL). A large-scale trial, THEMIS (the largest randomized trial in diabetes) established the value of dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and aspirin in patients with stable CAD and diabetes, particularly if they have a prior history of percutaneous coronary intervention.

Team 6The Haemostasis, how can i buy zofran Thrombo-Inflammation, Neurovascular Repair team (Team 6, M.C. Bouton and N. Kubis, Refs31–35) focuses its research on the interaction between actors of haemostasis and thrombo-inflammation in the vessel wall to extend knowledge on cardio- and neurovascular diseases. The main how can i buy zofran themes of the team are. Heart failure.

Increased protease activities within the myocardium is involved in how can i buy zofran the development of heart failure. We have previously demonstrated that protease nexin-1, a major tissue antiprotease, constitutes a key factor in the responses of vessels to injury, via its antithrombotic and antifibrinolytic properties. We now aim to determine its potential role in cardiac pathophysiology.Intracranial aneurysm. The pathophysiology evolution of intracranial aneurysm events seems driven by how can i buy zofran complex cellular interactions between different cell types including platelets, leucocytes, and vascular cells. Our main objective is to decipher platelet mechanisms during intracranial aneurysm formation and rupture.Stroke.

We investigate how cellular actors of inflammation and molecular actors of haemostasis contribute to the how can i buy zofran pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke. Our approach combines the analysis of thrombi and plasma samples recovered from stroke patients (Figure 4), and the use of animal models. We showed that thrombi from patients have thrombolysis- resistant areas,large vessel occlusion triggers downstream micro thrombosis, andDNAse can help improve thrombolysis. Figure 4Thrombus how can i buy zofran retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy from patients with ischaemic stroke. Platelets (green) and neutrophils (red) immunostaining.Figure 4Thrombus retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy from patients with ischaemic stroke.

Platelets (green) and neutrophils (red) immunostaining.Our work has set the basis for the development of clinical trials developing a personalized stroke care in emergency situations (BOOSTER consortium) and testing the efficacy of new drugs such as a novel anti-platelet drug (Phase Ib/IIa clinical trial ACTIMIS, Acticor Biotech, a spin-off company located in LVTS and created by Dr Martine how can i buy zofran Jandrot-Perrus, https://acticor-biotech.com/). ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material at European Heart Journal online.Conflict of interest. None declared. Published on behalf of the European Society of how can i buy zofran Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020 how can i buy zofran. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

What should I tell my health care provider before I take Zofran?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • liver disease
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to ondansetron, granisetron, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

Can you give zofran to a 2 year old

Need to destress and can you give zofran to a 2 year old boost your mood?. Looking at pictures of Chris Hemsworth will help - and we've rounded up the best here.Finding the positives in an otherwise hectic and unprecedented year, has been a real struggle.It’s no surprise people are more anxious than ever before, are experiencing uncontrollable stress and burnout, and panic attacks are on the rise.But luckily, there’s a simple (and free) trick you can turn to for an instant mood boost. Chris Hemsworth’s Instagram.The can you give zofran to a 2 year old actor, who has just announced he’s been cast in George Miller’s long-awaited Mad Max spin-off, regularly shares the most, let’s say ‘picturesque’ photos, of himself on Instagram – and we live for them.

From topless pics to Hemsworth holding cute animals, his ‘gram is truly easy on the eyes and will calm your stress levels right away.So as an act of service, we’ve rounded up ALL Chris Hemsworth’s best pics - because why the He-msworth not?. You’re welcome.Like what you see?. Sign up to our bodyandsoul.com.au newsletter can you give zofran to a 2 year old for more stories like this.All the times Chris Hemsworth deserved an Order of Australia for services to InstagramThe!.

Time!. He!. Held! can you give zofran to a 2 year old.

A!. Joey! can you give zofran to a 2 year old. !.

Men in suits. Tick. Chris Hemsworth in a suit?.

Tick, tick and tick. Here's a full body pic, in case you were wondering.Oh my god, he's talking to you!. Why aren't there guys like this at our gym?.

Could watch this video on repeat. Tbh, don't even know what he's saying.Don't you wish you were sharing that cake with him?. Ugh, he's a family man, too.

He's way too good.How does he make THIS look hot?. Imagine him proposing to you under the Eiffel Tower. Just imagine.

What's your address, Chris?. Elsa, want to trade lives for just one day?. And of course we saved the best for last.

*drooooooool*A recent announcement by the Australian government means that from October 9th the number of psychologist appointments covered by Medicare will double, from 10 to 20. One of the less evident effects of the coronavirus pandemic is without doubt the mental health impact that not only the disease itself, but the effect that lockdowns, social restrictions and the economic fallout have had on Australians.What is the 'shadow pandemic'?. This has been referred to as the 'shadow pandemic,' with many mental health professionals issuing grave warnings about the flow-on effects that they say we will see for months, if not years, following the arrival of COVID-19 on the global agenda.

Sky News reports that up to one million Australians have sought mental health support since the beginning of the pandemic, and upwards of 351,000 Victorians - who have suffered through some of the longest lockdowns globally - sought help from GPs, psychologists and counselling services in September and October - representing a 31 per cent increase since 2019.Similarly, the Kids Helpline saw a 61 per cent increase in young people over the past four weeks, taking about 3700 calls from those needing help.Mental health care plans have been doubledIn response to this, the Australian government has doubled the number of mental health therapy sessions Australians can access for free under the Medical Benefits Scheme - an initiative they're calling Better Access Scheme - from 10 appointments per calendar year to 20. Thank you, Medicare.Like what you see?. Sign up to our bodyandsoul.com.au newsletter for more stories like this.How has this changed?.

The key difference between this and what was available before (which was based on if your state or territory was under lockdown restrictions), is that the scheme is now open to all Australians whose mental health may have been affected by COVID, and the timeframe to access these free sessions has been extended until 30 June, 2022 for in-person appointments, and until 31 March, 2021 for Telehealth or phone appointments.The Department of Health published the following last week. "From 9 October 2020 until 30 June 2022, 10 additional individual psychological therapy sessions, previously available only to people whose movement was restricted by a state or territory public health order, are now available each calendar year to all eligible patients under the existing Better Access to Psychiatrists, Psychologists and General Practitioners through the MBS (Better Access) initiative." This comes at a reported cost of $101 million.Are there any drawbacks?. However, the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners believes there could be a downside to the increased access to free mental health appointments, stating that "The college believes appropriate safeguards and measures are needed to prevent any unintended negative consequences when increasing the number of Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS)-related psychological therapy sessions.

Inappropriately increasing the maximum number of sessions could drive up the number of patients who do not obtain any meaningful benefit from these referrals and potentially decreasing access for other people.If you feel like your mental health is suffering, or you need to talk to someone, make an appointment with your GP and ask about getting a mental health care plan.In an emergency please call 000.If you or someone you know needs help, phone Lifeline on 13 11 14 or the 24-hour Suicide Call Back Service 1300 659 467.Mental health professionals are available 24/7 at the beyondblue Support Service – 1300 22 46 36 or via beyondblue.org.au/get-support for online chat (3pm-12am AEST) or email response.http://mbsonline.gov.au/internet/mbsonline/publishing.nsf/content/240DC3AF97EEAF79CA2585BC00827909/$File/Factsheet-Practitioners-Mental-Health-Services-COVID-19.pdf.

Need to how can i buy zofran destress and boost your mood?. Looking at pictures of Chris Hemsworth will help - and we've rounded up the best here.Finding the positives in an otherwise hectic and unprecedented year, has been a real struggle.It’s no surprise people are more anxious than ever before, are experiencing uncontrollable stress and burnout, and panic attacks are on the rise.But luckily, there’s a simple (and free) trick you can turn to for an instant mood boost. Chris Hemsworth’s Instagram.The actor, how can i buy zofran who has just announced he’s been cast in George Miller’s long-awaited Mad Max spin-off, regularly shares the most, let’s say ‘picturesque’ photos, of himself on Instagram – and we live for them. From topless pics to Hemsworth holding cute animals, his ‘gram is truly easy on the eyes and will calm your stress levels right away.So as an act of service, we’ve rounded up ALL Chris Hemsworth’s best pics - because why the He-msworth not?.

You’re welcome.Like what you see?. Sign up to our bodyandsoul.com.au newsletter for more stories how can i buy zofran like this.All the times Chris Hemsworth deserved an Order of Australia for services to InstagramThe!. Time!. He!.

Held! how can i buy zofran. A!. Joey! how can i buy zofran. !.

Men in suits. Tick. Chris Hemsworth in a suit?. Tick, tick and tick.

Here's a full body pic, in case you were wondering.Oh my god, he's talking to you!. Why aren't there guys like this at our gym?. Could watch this video on repeat. Tbh, don't even know what he's saying.Don't you wish you were sharing that cake with him?.

Ugh, he's a family man, too. He's way too good.How does he make THIS look hot?. Imagine him proposing to you under the Eiffel Tower. Just imagine.

Yes!. Ok!. We'll be there!. What's your address, Chris?.

Elsa, want to trade lives for just one day?. And of course we saved the best for last. *drooooooool*A recent announcement by the Australian government means that from October 9th the number of psychologist appointments covered by Medicare will double, from 10 to 20. One of the less evident effects of the coronavirus pandemic is without doubt the mental health impact that not only the disease itself, but the effect that lockdowns, social restrictions and the economic fallout have had on Australians.What is the 'shadow pandemic'?.

This has been referred to as the 'shadow pandemic,' with many mental health professionals issuing grave warnings about the flow-on effects that they say we will see for months, if not years, following the arrival of COVID-19 on the global agenda. Sky News reports that up to one million Australians have sought mental health support since the beginning of the pandemic, and upwards of 351,000 Victorians - who have suffered through some of the longest lockdowns globally - sought help from GPs, psychologists and counselling services in September and October - representing a 31 per cent increase since 2019.Similarly, the Kids Helpline saw a 61 per cent increase in young people over the past four weeks, taking about 3700 calls from those needing help.Mental health care plans have been doubledIn response to this, the Australian government has doubled the number of mental health therapy sessions Australians can access for free under the Medical Benefits Scheme - an initiative they're calling Better Access Scheme - from 10 appointments per calendar year to 20. Thank you, Medicare.Like what you see?. Sign up to our bodyandsoul.com.au newsletter for more stories like this.How has this changed?.

The key difference between this and what was available before (which was based on if your state or territory was under lockdown restrictions), is that the scheme is now open to all Australians whose mental health may have been affected by COVID, and the timeframe to access these free sessions has been extended until 30 June, 2022 for in-person appointments, and until 31 March, 2021 for Telehealth or phone appointments.The Department of Health published the following last week. "From 9 October 2020 until 30 June 2022, 10 additional individual psychological therapy sessions, previously available only to people whose movement was restricted by a state or territory public health order, are now available each calendar year to all eligible patients under the existing Better Access to Psychiatrists, Psychologists and General Practitioners through the MBS (Better Access) initiative." This comes at a reported cost of $101 million.Are there any drawbacks?. However, the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners believes there could be a downside to the increased access to free mental health appointments, stating that "The college believes appropriate safeguards and measures are needed to prevent any unintended negative consequences when increasing the number of Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS)-related psychological therapy sessions. Inappropriately increasing the maximum number of sessions could drive up the number of patients who do not obtain any meaningful benefit from these referrals and potentially decreasing access for other people.If you feel like your mental health is suffering, or you need to talk to someone, make an appointment with your GP and ask about getting a mental health care plan.In an emergency please call 000.If you or someone you know needs help, phone Lifeline on 13 11 14 or the 24-hour Suicide Call Back Service 1300 659 467.Mental health professionals are available 24/7 at the beyondblue Support Service – 1300 22 46 36 or via beyondblue.org.au/get-support for online chat (3pm-12am AEST) or email response.http://mbsonline.gov.au/internet/mbsonline/publishing.nsf/content/240DC3AF97EEAF79CA2585BC00827909/$File/Factsheet-Practitioners-Mental-Health-Services-COVID-19.pdf.

Zofran side effects on baby

As flu zofran side effects on baby season creeps up on the Northern Hemisphere, cold and flu relief medications will inevitably fly off store shelves. A natural remedy that shoppers might reach for is elderberry, a small, blackish-purple fruit that companies turn into syrups, lozenges and gummies. Though therapeutic uses of the berry date back centuries, Michael Macknin, a pediatrician at the Cleveland Clinic, hadn’t heard of using elderberry to zofran side effects on baby treat the flu until a patient’s mother asked him about it. Some industry-sponsored research claims that the herbal remedy could cut the length of the symptoms by up to four days. For a comparison, Tamiflu, an FDA-approved treatment, only reduces flu duration zofran side effects on baby by about a single day.

€œI said, 'Gee, if that’s really true [about elderberry], it would be a huge benefit,'” Macknin says. But the effectiveness and safety of elderberry is still fairly unclear. Unlike the over-the-counter medicines at your local pharmacy, elderberry hasn't zofran side effects on baby been through rigorous FDA testing and approval. However, Macknin and his team recently published a study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, which found that elderberry treatments did nothing for flu patients. This prompts a need for further studies into the remedy zofran side effects on baby — work that unfortunately stands a low chance of happening in the future, Macknin says.

Looking For ProofElderberries are full of chemicals that could be good for your health. Like similar fruits, the berries contain high levels of antioxidants, compounds zofran side effects on baby that shut down reactions in our bodies that damage cells. But whether or not elderberry's properties also help immune systems fend off a virus is murky. There are only a handful of studies that have examined if elderberries reduced the severity or duration of the flu. And though some of the work prior to Macknin’s was well-designed and supported this herbal remedy as a helpful flu aid, at least some — and potentially all — of those studies were zofran side effects on baby funded by elderberry treatment manufacturers.Macknin says an elderberry supplement company provided his team with their products and a placebo version for free, but that the company wasn’t involved in the research beyond that.

Macknin's study is the largest one conducted on elderberry to date, with 87 influenza patients completing the entire treatment course. Participants in the study were also welcome to take Tamiflu, for ethical reasons, as the team didn’t want to exclude anyone from taking a proven zofran side effects on baby flu therapy. Additionally, each participant took home either a bottle of elderberry syrup or the placebo with instructions on when and how to take it. The research team called participants every day for a symptom check and to remind them to take their medication.By chance, it turned out that a higher percentage of the patients given elderberry syrup had gotten their flu shot and also chose to zofran side effects on baby take Tamiflu. Since the vaccination can reduce the severity of infection in recipients who still come down with the flu, the study coincidentally operated in favor of those who took the herbal remedy, Macknin says.

Those patients could have dealt with a shorter, less-intense illness because of the Tamiflu and vaccination. €œEverything was stacked to have it turn out better [for the elderberry group],” Macknin says, “and it turned out the same.” The researchers found no difference in illness duration or severity between the elderberry and zofran side effects on baby placebo groups. While analyzing the data, the team also found that those on the herbal treatment might have actually fared worse than those on the placebo. The potential for this intervention to actually harm instead of help influenza patients explains why Macknin thinks the therapy needs further research.But, zofran side effects on baby don't expect that work to happen any time soon. Researchers are faced with a number of challenges when it comes to studying the efficacy of herbal remedies.

For starters, there's little financial incentive to investigate if they actually zofran side effects on baby work. Plant products are challenging to patent, making them less lucrative prospects for pharmaceutical companies or research organizations to investigate. Additionally, investigations that try and prove a proposed therapy as an effective drug — like the one Macknin and his team accomplished — are expensive, Macknin says. Those projects need FDA oversight and additional paperwork, components that drive zofran side effects on baby up study costs. €œIt’s extraordinarily expensive and there’s no money in it for anybody,” Macknin says.Talk To Your DoctorUltimately, research on elderberry therapies for flu patients is a mixed bag, and deserves more attention from scientists.

However, if you still want to discuss elderberry treatments for the flu with your doctor, that’s a conversation you should feel comfortable having, says Erica McIntyre, an expert focused on health and environmental psychology in the School of Public Health at the University of zofran side effects on baby Technology Sydney. Navigating what research says about a particular herbal medicine is challenging for patients and health practitioners alike. The process is made more complex by the range of similar-sounding products on zofran side effects on baby the market that lack standardized ingredients, McIntyre says. But when doctors judge or shame patients for asking about non-conventional healthcare interventions, the response can distance people and push them closer to potentially unproven treatments. Even worse, those individuals might start to keep their herbal remedies a secret.

€œIt is that fear about being judged for zofran side effects on baby use of that medication,” McIntyre says, that drives up to 50 percent of people taking herbal treatments to withhold that information from healthcare practitioners. That’s a dangerous choice, as some herbal and traditional medications can interact and cause health problems.If a physician shames someone for asking about alternative medicines, it’s likely time to find a new doctor, McIntyre says. Look for someone who will listen to your concerns — whether it's that you feel traditional treatments haven’t worked for you, or that you didn’t like the side effects, the two common zofran side effects on baby reasons people pursue herbal treatments in the first place. €œYou’re not necessarily looking for a doctor that will let you do whatever you want,” McIntyre says, “but that they actually consider you as a patient, your treatment choices and your treatment priorities, and communicate in a way that’s supportive.” And if a doctor suggests that you avoid a treatment you’re interested in, ask why. They generally have a good reason, McIntyre says.For now, know that even if your doctor doesn’t support you taking elderberry, there are other proven preventative measures that are worth your while — like the flu shot.

Anyone six months or older should get it, Macknin says, and stick to the protocols we’re used to following to prevent COVID-19 infections, like social distancing, mask-wearing and zofran side effects on baby hand-washing. Those measures also help prevent flu transmission, too — something, so far, no elderberry supplement package can claim.The yearly influenza season threatens to make the COVID-19 pandemic doubly deadly, but I believe that this isn’t inevitable.There are two commonly given vaccines – the pneumococcal vaccine and the Hib vaccine – that protect against bacterial pneumonias. These bacteria complicate both influenza zofran side effects on baby and COVID-19, often leading to death. My examination of disease trends and vaccination rates leads me to believe that broader use of the pneumococcal and Hib vaccines could guard against the worst effects of a COVID-19 illness.I am an immunologist and physiologist interested in the effects of combined infections on immunity. I have reached my insight by zofran side effects on baby juxtaposing two seemingly unrelated puzzles.

Infants and children get SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, but very rarely become hospitalized or die. And case numbers and death rates from COVID-19 began varying greatly from nation to nation and city to city even before lockdowns began. I wondered why.One night I zofran side effects on baby woke up with a possible answer. Vaccination rates. Most children, beginning at age zofran side effects on baby two months, are vaccinated against numerous diseases.

Adults less so. And, both zofran side effects on baby infant and adult vaccination rates vary widely across the world. Could differences in the rates of vaccination against one or more diseases account for differences in COVID-19 risks?. As someone who had previously investigated other pandemics such as the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918-19 and AIDS, and who has worked with vaccines, I had a strong background for tracking down the relevant data to test my hypothesis.Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates Correlate With Lower COVID-19 Cases and DeathsI gathered national and some local data on vaccination rates against influenza, polio, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), tuberculosis (BCG), pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). I correlated them with COVID-19 case rates and death rates for 24 nations that had experienced their COVID-19 outbreaks zofran side effects on baby at about the same time.

I controlled for factors such as percentage of the population who were obese, diabetic or elderly.I found that only pneumococcal vaccines afforded statistically significant protection against COVID-19. Nations such as Spain, Italy, Belgium, Brazil, Peru and Chile that have the highest zofran side effects on baby COVID-19 rates per million have the poorest pneumococcal vaccination rates among both infants and adults. Nations with the lowest rates of COVID-19 – Japan, Korea, Denmark, Australia and New Zealand – have the highest rates of pneumococcal vaccination among both infants and adults.A recent preprint study (not yet peer-reviewed) from researchers at the Mayo Clinic has also reported very strong associations between pneumococcal vaccination and protection against COVID-19. This is especially true among minority patients who are bearing the brunt of the zofran side effects on baby coronavirus pandemic. The report also suggests that other vaccines, or combinations of vaccines, such as Hib and MMR may also provide protection.These results are important because in the U.S., childhood vaccination against pneumococci – which protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria – varies by state from 74% to 92%.

Although the CDC recommends that all adults 18-64 in high risk groups for COVID-19 and all adults over the age of 65 get a pneumococcal vaccination, only 23% of high-risk adults and 64% of those over the age of 65 do so.Similarly, although the CDC recommends at all infants and some high-risk adults be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), only 80.7% of children in the U.S. And a zofran side effects on baby handful of immunologically compromised adults have been. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccination rates are significantly lower in minority populations in the U.S. And in countries that have been hit harder by COVID-19 than the U.S.Based on these data, I advocate universal pneumococcal and Hib vaccination among children, at-risk adults and all zofran side effects on baby adults over 65 to prevent serious COVID-19 disease.Left. Combined rates of childhood and adult (over 65) pneumococcal vaccination (out of a possible 200).

Right. Cases (per million) population of COVID-19 at about 90 days into the pandemic for 24 nations. Nations with high pneumococcal vaccination rates have low COVID-19 case rates. (Credit. CC BY-SA)How Pneumococcal Vaccination Protects Against COVID-19Protection against serious COVID-19 disease by pneumococcal and Hib vaccines makes sense for several reasons.

First, recent studies reveal that the majority of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and in some studies nearly all, are infected with streptococci, which causes pneumococcal pneumonias, Hib or other pneumonia-causing bacteria. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccinations should protect coronavirus patients from these infections and thus significantly cut the risk of serious pneumonia.I also found that pneumococcal, Hib and possibly rubella vaccines may confer specific protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 by means of “molecular mimicry.”Molecular mimicry occurs when the immune system thinks one microbe looks like another. In this case, proteins found in pneumococcal vaccines and, to a lesser degree, ones found in Hib and rubella vaccines as well look like several proteins produced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Two of these proteins found in pneumococcal vaccines mimic the spike and membrane proteins that permit the virus to infect cells. This suggests pneumococcal vaccination may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two other mimics are the nucleoprotein and replicase that control virus replication.

These proteins are made after viral infection, in which case pneumococcal vaccination may control, but not prevent, SARS-CoV-2 replication.Either way, these vaccines may provide proxy protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection that we can implement right now, even before we have a specific virus vaccine. Such protection may not be complete. People might still suffer a weakened version of COVID-19 but, like most infants and children, be protected against the worst effects of the infection.Fighting Influenza-related Pneumonias During the COVID-19 PandemicWhile the specific protection these other vaccines confer against COVID-19 has not yet been tested in a clinical trial, I advocate broader implementation of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination for one additional, well-validated reason.Pneumococcal and Hib pneumonias – both caused by bacteria – are the major causes of death following viral influenza. The influenza virus rarely causes death directly. Most often, the virus makes the lungs more susceptible to bacterial pneumonias, which are deadly.

Dozens of studies around the world have demonstrated that increasing rates of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination dramatically lowers influenza-related pneumonias.Similar studies demonstrate that the price of using these vaccines is balanced by savings due to lower rates of influenza-related hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions and deaths. In the context of COVID-19, lowering rates of influenza-related hospitalizations and ICU admissions would free up resources to fight the coronavirus, independent of any effect these vaccines might have on SARS-CoV-2 itself. In my opinion, that is a winning scenario.In short, we need not wait for a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to slow down COVID-19.I believe that we can and should act now by fighting the coronavirus with all the tools at our disposal, including influenza, Hib, pneumococcal and perhaps rubella vaccinations.Preventing pneumococcal and Hib complications of influenza and COVID-19, and perhaps proxy-vaccinating against SARS-CoV-2 itself, helps everyone. Administering these already available and well-tested pneumococcal and Hib vaccines to people will save money by freeing up hospital beds and ICUs. It will also improve public health by reducing the spread of multiple infections and boost the economy by nurturing a healthier population.Robert Root-Bernstein is a Professor of Physiology at Michigan State University.

This article was originally published on The Conversation under a Creative Commons liscense Read the original here.This story appeared in the November 2020 issue as "Bacteria and the Brain." Subscribe to Discover magazine for more stories like this.It’s not always easy to convince people that the human gut is a sublime and wondrous place worthy of special attention. Sarkis Mazmanian discovered that soon after arriving at Caltech for his first faculty job 14 years ago, when he explained to a local artist what he had in mind for the walls outside his new office.The resulting mural greets visitors to the Mazmanian Lab today. A vaguely psychedelic, 40-foot-long, tube-shaped colon that’s pink, purple and red snakes down the hallway. In a panel next to it, fluorescent yellow and green bacteria explode out of a deeply inflamed section of the intestinal tract, like radioactive lava from outer space.The mural is modest compared with what the scientist has been working on since. Over the last decade or so, Mazmanian has been a leading proponent of the idea that the flora of the human digestive tract has a far more powerful effect on the human body and mind than we thought — a scientific effort that earned him a $500,000 MacArthur Fellowship “Genius Grant” in 2012.

Since then, Mazmanian and a small but growing cadre of fellow microbiologists have amassed a tantalizing body of evidence on the microbiome’s role in all kinds of brain disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and depression.But the results they’ve seen in autism could, in the end, prove the most transformative. Autism affects about 1 in 59 children in the U.S., and involves profound social withdrawal, communication problems, and sometimes anxiety and aggression. The causes of the brain disorder have remained speculative. Now, Mazmanian and other researchers are finding that autism may be inextricably linked to — or even caused by — irregularities in the gut microbiome.A Biology StoryAt 47, Mazmanian — with his shaved head, flannel shirt and skinny jeans — resembles a young, urban hipster on his way to write at the local café. Originally, literary life was his plan.

Born in Lebanon to two Armenian refugees, neither of whom had more than a first-grade education, Mazmanian landed in the class of an energetic high school English teacher in California’s San Fernando Valley, where his family first settled. The teacher recognized his gift for language and encouraged him to pursue a career in literature. Mazmanian enrolled at UCLA in 1990, planning to major in English.Everything changed when he took his first biology class. Hunched over his new, thick textbook in the library, reading about basic biological concepts like photosynthesis, Mazmanian felt a vast new world opening up to him.Sarkis Mazmanian, shown in front of a mural that celebrates the human gut, is part of a group of microbiologists researching the effects of the digestive tract on a range of disorders. (Credit.

Caltech)“For the first time in my life, I wanted to turn the page and see where the story was going to go,” he says. €œI think I decided that minute to become a scientist.”Mazmanian was most fascinated by the idea that tiny organisms, invisible to the naked eye, could function as powerful, self-contained machines — powerful enough to take over and destroy the human body. After graduating with a degree in microbiology, Mazmanian joined a UCLA infectious diseases lab and began studying bacteria that cause staph infections.As his dissertation defense approached, Mazmanian read a one-page commentary penned by a prominent microbiologist, highlighting the fact that our intestines are teeming with hundreds, if not thousands, of different species of bacteria. But it was still largely unknown what they are and how they affect the human body.When Mazmanian dug further, he found that no one had yet answered what seemed to him to be the most obvious question. Why would the human immune system, designed to attack and destroy foreign invaders, allow hundreds of species of bacteria to live and thrive in our guts unmolested?.

To him, the bacteria’s survival implied that we had evolved to coexist with them. And if that were so, he reasoned, there must be some benefit to both the microbes and the human body — a symbiotic relationship. But what was it?. Gut InvadersMazmanian set out to study the link between gut microbes and the immune system. As a postdoctoral researcher, he joined the lab of Harvard University infectious disease specialist Dennis Kasper.To start, Mazmanian examined how the immune systems of germ-free mice — lab mice completely protected, starting at birth, from all microbes — differed from those of mice with either few or normal levels of microbes.

He expected this initial census would be just a first step in a long and arduous quest for scientific pay dirt. But when he went to examine a printout of his results in the lab, he realized immediately he might already be onto something big. The germ-free mice had a 30 to 40 percent reduction in a specific type of immune cell known as helper T-cells.This colorized close-up of a mouse’s gut reveals the tight relationship between the gut microbe Bacteroides fragilis (red) and the epithelial surface of the colon (blue). (Credit. Caltech)Since helper T-cells play a key role in coordinating attacks against invading pathogens, the finding suggested that the immune systems of the germ-free mice were far less robust than those found in peers with normal levels of microbes.“That was exciting, right?.

€ Mazmanian recalls. €œObviously I repeated it and tested it in a number of different ways. Then I asked the next question. €˜Can I restore the [immune] function in an adult animal?. €™â€‰â€Mazmanian colonized the guts of the immunocompromised, germ-free mice with microbes from standard lab mice.

After receiving the fecal transplant, their T-cell counts shot up. Within a month, their numbers were identical to mice raised outside the germ-free bubble.Resolving to identify the microorganisms causing this transformation, Mazmanian resorted to trial and error. One by one, he added strains of bacteria found in the guts of mice to the guts of germ-free mice.He got nowhere with the first five or six species he examined. Then, simply because it was convenient, he decided to test one more that was readily available in his lab. Mazmanian’s adviser, Kasper, had been studying a gut microbe called Bacteroides fragilis.

When Mazmanian implanted one of Kasper’s specimens into the gut of his germ-free mice, the results were dramatic. The T-cell numbers spiked to normal. Eventually, Mazmanian demonstrated he could reproduce this effect simply by adding a single molecule that these bacteria produce, called polysaccharide A, to their guts.“There was no logic in the choice whatsoever,” Mazmanian recalls. €œ[B. Fragilis] was available, it came from the gut.” In other words, he got lucky.Mazmanian dug deeper and discovered that the biggest impact B.

Fragilis had was on the population of a subtype of helper T-cells called regulatory, or suppressor, T-cells. These cells play a key role in preventing the immune system from attacking its host body, protecting against autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. It was the first time any scientist had demonstrated that a single compound from a single microbe could reverse a specific problem with the immune system.To Mazmanian, the finding, published in 2005 in the journal Cell, alluded to new approaches to treating a wide array of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic disorders. What if it were possible to help a faulty immune system by tweaking a patient’s microbiome?. It was with this exploration in mind that he arrived in Pasadena in 2006 to set up his lab at Caltech.A Convenient CollaborationA few years later, Mazmanian was having lunch on campus with neuroscientist and colleague Paul Patterson.

Patterson had been preoccupied with a mystery that had, for years, confounded those studying autism in humans. When pregnant mothers have a severe infection in the second trimester, their babies are much more likely to develop autism.As Mazmanian tells it, Patterson was a man of few words, and at lunch Mazmanian was “going on and on” about his own work.“You know,” Patterson interjected thoughtfully, “I think kids with autism have GI issues.”Patterson recalled reading that something like 60 percent of children with autism had some form of clinical GI problem, such as bloating, constipation, flatulence or diarrhea. Was it possible, he wondered, that there was a microbiome connection?. As they talked, Mazmanian’s excitement grew.A few years earlier, Patterson had discovered that when he exposed pregnant mice to pathogens like the influenza virus, they gave birth to pups that grew up more likely to be startled by loud noises, to shy away from social contact and to groom themselves repetitively — symptoms that resemble those of autism. Patterson was in the process of comparing the brains of these autism-mimicking mice with their neurotypical cousins to see if he could detect any differences that might explain how the maternal immune system was somehow interfering with the pups’ brain development.Mazmanian had a suggestion.

The next time Patterson sacrificed one of his autistic mice to study their brains, what if he set the intestines aside for his colleague down the hall?. When the guts arrived in Mazmanian’s lab, he found that the intestines of the neurotypical mice looked normal. But the guts of the autism-mimicking offspring were almost uniformly inflamed. Could it be that the microbiome was the cause of this inflammation?. And could that, in turn, be somehow connected to the behavioral symptoms?.

Throughout the winter and spring of 2012, Mazmanian and Patterson continued their conversation. Mazmanian found distinct differences in the microbiomes of the mice. And, they noticed, the mice with the features of autism had leaky gut syndrome, an increased permeability of the gut lining that can allow pathogens and allergens to leach out. This condition had also been reported in children with autism.So Mazmanian and Patterson turned their attention outside the gut. They took blood samples to see if any gut microbes, or the compounds they produce, were circulating in the rest of the body.

They homed in on one molecule in particular, called 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, which was roughly 45 times as abundant in the mice that had symptoms of autism. And it looked familiar. Structurally, it was almost identical to a molecule recently found to be significantly elevated in human children with autism.It was enough to take the next step. Every day for three weeks, Mazmanian injected the molecule, harvested from the mice with autism-like symptoms, directly into the bloodstream of 5-week-old normal lab mice (the age at which the autistic mice normally developed leaky gut). Then Mazmanian and his team gave them a series of behavioral tests.

The mice were far more easily startled and were less comfortable in large empty spaces than their untreated peers, indications of an increase in anxiety-related behaviors commonly seen in the mice with autism-like symptoms. The researchers published their results in Cell in 2013.Though surprising, the data made sense in some ways. Many drug companies rely on small-molecule drugs that can be taken orally, but still manage to cross the blood-brain barrier and affect behavior. It seemed entirely possible that small molecules, created by bacteria in the gut, could enter the bloodstream and reach the brain. And they don’t even have to leak out of the gut to do so.Of Mice and MenPatterson died in 2014, at age 70, just six months after the publication of the duo’s groundbreaking Cell paper.

Around the same time, a series of parallel experiments in a clinic hundreds of miles away was already paving the way forward. While Patterson and Mazmanian had been working in mice, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, a microbiologist at Arizona State University, had teamed up with Jim Adams, who directs the university’s autism and Asperger’s research program, to study humans.The researchers were conducting a detailed analysis of the microbiome of human autism patients and found that the bacteria were far less diverse in the children with autism. Notably, several important species involved in the digestion of carbohydrates were severely depleted.Krajmalnik-Brown and Adams launched a preliminary trial to test the effects of fecal transplants on 18 children between the ages of 7 and 16 with severe autism, who also had severe GI issues. The researchers administered powerful antibiotics to kill off the microbiomes of the children and followed them with a bowel cleanse. They then replaced the microbes with transplanted flora taken from the guts of healthy neurotypical adult volunteers.The results were better than anyone could have expected.

The procedure resulted in a large reduction in GI symptoms and increased the diversity of bacteria in the children’s guts. But more significantly, their neurological symptoms were reduced. At the onset of the study in 2017, an independent evaluator found 83 percent of participants had severe autism. Two years after the initial trial, only 17 percent were rated as severely autistic. And 44 percent were no longer on the autism scale.“[My child] did a complete 180,” says Dana Woods, whose then-7-year-old son Ethan enrolled in the initial study five years ago.

€œHis ability to communicate is so much different now. He’s just so much more present. He’s so much more aware. He’s no longer in occupational therapy. He’s no longer in speech therapy.

After the study, he tested two points away from a neurotypical child.”In their first report on the trial in 2017, the team highlighted a number of distinct changes in the microbiome after the transplants, in particular a surge in the populations of three types of bacteria. Among them was a four-fold increase in Bifidobacterium, a probiotic organism that seems to play a key role in the maintenance of a healthy gut.But figuring out what was happening on a cellular level — to really look inside some guts — would require another vehicle. The ASU team needed Mazmanian’s mice.“At the end of the day, what we care about is healing people and how the microbiome affects people,” explains Krajmalnik-Brown. €œThat’s why we work with people. But with mice you can do things that are more mechanistic.”The Great Mouse Detective(Credit.

Caltech)Together, Krajmalnik-Brown, Mazmanian and their collaborators would uncover some tantalizing new insights that go a long way to solving the mystery. In May 2019, the team published another high-profile paper in Cell, after they transplanted stool samples from Krajmalnik-Brown’s severely autistic patients into the guts of Mazmanian’s germ-free mice. The offspring of these mice showed the autism-like symptoms, such as repetitive and compulsive behavior.This time, the team dug even deeper into the biochemical processes playing out in the brain, looking not just at behavior but at the chemicals involved in creating it. The mice that developed autism-like behaviors had measurably lower levels of two substances called taurine and 5-aminovaleric acid (5AV). When they dug into the literature, the team learned that these two substances are known to mimic activity of a key signaling agent in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) — a neurotransmitter that other studies have found is deficient in the brains of children with autism.What’s more, some have speculated that the tendency of children with autism to experience sensory overstimulation may stem from the inability to tamp down overexcited neurons.

A lack of GABA could lead to just that.The scientists next orally administered high levels of taurine and 5AV to pregnant mice with the autistic children’s microbiomes. When their pups were born, the researchers continued to feed the young the substances until they reached adulthood. Compared with untreated animals, the second-generation mice had significantly fewer behavioral symptoms. Taurine reduced repetitive behavior, as measured by marble burying, increased the level of social interaction, and relieved anxiety. Mice administered 5AV were more active and social.“We healed humans with behavioral problems,” says Krajmalnik-Brown.

€œ[And we] transferred some of those deficits and behaviors to mice — basically the opposite. It’s huge.”Mazmanian hopes to take the next step in the months ahead.“I can flip a switch, turn on a light, I know that switch turns on that light. I don’t know the circuit, I don’t know where the wire is,” Mazmanian says. €œExactly how that’s happening … we just don’t understand that.”This most recent study, by itself, hardly proves that dysregulated microbiomes cause the brain disorder — a point that plenty of other scientists skeptical of Mazmanian’s work are happy to make.“The paper made a big splash, but trying to model psychiatric-related human conditions in mice, in my view, is a little bit of a stretch,” says Sangram Sisodia, a neurobiologist at the University of Chicago who studies the microbiome. €œA mouse with autism?.

€Nor was that the only criticism. Several researchers have suggested that the group didn’t give proper attention to one of their tests ­— one whose results conflicted with their thesis ­— while others found flaws in the statistical methods they used to assess their results. Mazmanian downplays these criticisms, but agrees the work is not yet conclusive.Meanwhile, the ASU trial has also engendered skepticism, mainly due to its tiny sample size, the lack of a control group and the methods by which the children were assessed for autism severity. Krajmalnik-Brown and Adams say they stand by their results, but agree more research is needed. In recent months, they have launched two new studies that will address these issues.Adams insists the work is already changing lives.

€œWe followed up with every one of our 18 participants,” he says, referring to the children who received fecal transplants. €œSure enough, we found that most of the GI benefits had remained. And family after family said their child just slowly, steadily continued making more improvement.” They published the update in Scientific Reports in spring 2019.“I’m not ready to say the case is closed,” says Mazmanian. €œHealthy skepticism is a good thing. I believe the preclinical data, I believe the mouse data.

But there’s a lot of studies that still need to be done.” A Healthy Gut, A New OutlookEthan Woods had GI issues and symptoms of autism until researchers introduced new microbes to his gut. His mother says the treatment changed everything. (Credit. Dana Woods)Prior to his fecal transplant at age 7, Ethan Woods suffered from chronic and severe diarrhea, constipation and cramping, symptoms so extreme that to his mother, Dana, he sounded like “a bit like a woman in labor when he was trying to have a bowel movement.” “It was just awful watching your child go through this,” she says, explaining that when she enrolled her autistic son in the Arizona State study, her “only goal was to fix his gut.”Remarkably, Ethan’s agony began to disappear just a few weeks into the trial. But that was not the most dramatic difference.

Before the transplant, Ethan’s speech was drawn out and slow, his language skills rudimentary. He seemed to live in his own bubble. He had frequent outbursts. For as long as Dana could remember, her mornings with Ethan had been marked by arguing, fighting, pushing and anger. But then one morning, something shocking happened.“He woke me up one morning with his face right in my face with this big smile and he said, ‘Morning, Mom!.

€™â€‰â€ she recalls. €œAnd he was just excited and happy and ready to go about his day with this big smile. It choked me up to the point where I teared up because I had never experienced a happy kid in the morning.”Later, Ethan carried over an iPad and opened an app with a talking cat that repeats back the words children speak aloud. He played back a video recording of himself from just a few weeks earlier.“[He] looks me in the eye and says, ‘Mom, why did I talk like that?. What is wrong with me?.

€™ And as soon as he did that, I caught my breath. I had to compose myself and say, ‘I don’t know. But do you feel better?. Do you feel different?. Why do you think?.

€™â€‰â€Ethan’s communication skills had already begun to improve. Within a year of the study, his speech therapist graduated him from speech therapy because he had met all his goals.“He went from one end of the rainbow all the way to the other end of the rainbow,” she says. €œPrior to the study, I was very afraid. My biggest fear was ‘how is he going to navigate the world when I’m not here?. €™ And I think I have a lot of hope now that he is going to be OK now on his own.”There’s something strange about the female orgasm, something that scientists have been unable to explain.

Biological functions are normally discussed in terms of evolutionary pressure, or reproductive advantage. If a biological trait improves your chances of having more offspring, then it’s more likely to stick around in your species. The male orgasm makes perfect sense — ejaculate contains the genetic material that’s necessary for making babies. But the female orgasm has been harder to nail down. Fertilization doesn’t depend on it, and “fun” isn’t exactly in the pantheon of evolutionary explanations.Researchers that study how the female orgasm relates to reproductive success have two main options — either ask people invasive questions about their most personal moments, or to find a way to stick probes in or on them during said moments.

Neither of these approaches have resulted in the kind of “wet lab” research that’s the gold standard for biological understanding.What we do know, despite widespread cultural discomfort with talking openly about sex and pleasure, is that there appears to be significant sexual dysfunction in American society. Back in 2014, researchers from the Kinsey Institute, the preeminent U.S. Academy for the study of sex and relationships, said as much. In a survey of nearly 3,000 people, they found that men, straight or gay, orgasmed 85 percent of the time during consensual sexual encounters. Lesbian women orgasmed less often, 75 percent of the time, while straight women fared worst with just a 60 percent chance of orgasm.

Other studies have shown that something like 10-15 percent of women experience lifelong anorgasmia, meaning they’ve never experienced orgasm. A further 40 percent of women report some kind of inability to reach orgasm in the past year.The orgasm gap is hard to explain. Some think that it comes down to straight men’s finesse, or lack thereof, citing the difference between straight and lesbian satisfaction. Indeed, it makes sense that knowing your way around the territory would help. But for many couples this isn’t a helpful revelation, since the emotional maturity necessary to teach sexual dexterity is often out of reach.

Shortcut to SatisfactionLuckily, we live in an era of Silicon Valley disruption, which has even started lapping at the shores of sex research. Technologist Liz Klinger is at the forefront of this transition. She and her team have built a platform that lets people become citizen scientists of sex —without ever having to get out from between the sheets.About a decade ago, Klinger’s company, Lioness, released what they billed as the first “smart vibrator,” a sex toy that could actually learn about you. The final product was a far cry from the first prototype, which was much more laboratory object than sex toy.The “test device was this whole mess of wires, with a hard connection. We had to physically send it to our beta testers, who used it and sent it back,” recalls Klinger.

The researchers would download the data collected by the toy’s four sensors — temperature, motion, acceleration and pressure — and compile it into a chart that represented arousal and orgasm, as told through the story of pelvic-floor muscle contractions.It was an immediate success for sex partners who needed ways to talk about pleasure in a more objective way. Klinger recalled that when she got the first beta-test couple on the phone, “the wife was like ‘holy crap, we finally were able to talk about these things that I’ve had a lot of trouble talking about.’ It turned out that she wanted more foreplay, and he didn’t know quite that that meant. He’d spend more time, but it just didn’t match up, you know?. € With the company’s signature offering in hand — a chart of sexual arousal over time — Klinger found that couples could have a conversation “without the subtext of ‘oh, you’re not good enough, or I don’t like you enough,’ on the husband’s part and ‘I’m so tired of talking about this’ on the wife’s part,” she says. The chart “can change people’s perceptions of their own experiences, and how they talk about them with others.”Doing the Deed — For ScienceThis spring, the company has launched a research platform dubbed Lioness 2.0 — a new optional service that, unsurprisingly, their data-obsessed users have greeted with open arms.

Now, instead of simply using the toy to understand themselves better, Lioness owners can opt in to the kinds of hands-on studies that are necessary for a deeper understanding of sex and pleasure. So far, the company is working with Nigeria’s Society for Family Health to study how pleasure changes with menopause across age, race and orientation, as well as with the U.S.’s Center for Genital Health and Education to explore the role of pelvic floor muscles in orgasm.Pani Farvid, a professor of applied psychology at The New School in New York City, has some reservations about the platform. €œI really like what they’re trying to do, but there could be more added to make it a bit more comprehensive. My concern is that there's a misconception that sex is just about the orgasm, that it’s just physiological and that pleasure just has to do with the genitals.” From where she’s sitting, “that’s a very mechanical view of sexuality.” If the Lioness is helping to equalize the orgasm gap, or helping people understand their bodies better, “I think that's great,” says Farvid. €œBut as a critical sexologist, I'm interested in delving deeper into what these practices mean.” If sex is hyper-focused on orgasm, to exclusion of everything else, she cautions that these norms “have real-life negative impacts on people's sex lives and their sense of themselves.”At this point, knee-deep in an era of data collection that was once the sole purview of white-coat-wearing scientists, it’s old news that we need to be careful with what our technology is doing to us.

No tool can serve as a cure-all, even if it comes loaded with a neat app and some space-age sensors. What it can offer, though, is the opportunity to start a conversation, and the chance to take a long, honest look at something about yourself — whether it’s the number of steps you take every day, or the way you want to be touched.Wondering how to keep your glasses from fogging up when your mask is on?. Look no further. If we've learned one thing throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it's the importance of wearing a mask. Countless studies have shown over the past eight months that wearing a protective barrier over your nose and mouth — whether it's a standard-issue surgical mask or an N95 respirator — can significantly decrease the odds of catching and transmitting disease.

What's more, some research shows that masking up can reduce the severity of an infection if a masked person does contract COVID-19. But while masks are potentially lifesaving, they can be uncomfortable, often changing your breathing patterns and fogging up your glasses when breath escapes through the top of the mask. Among people who choose not to wear a mask to prevent the spread of COVID-19, many cite discomfort as a key reason why.Wesley Wilson, a tumor immunologist in Pennsylvania, knows how annoying it can be when your glasses are fogging up. He says fogging is “definitely a problem” among his hospital colleagues, who need to wear protective goggles and surgical masks while on the job. Fortunately, they've also picked up a few helpful hacks for keeping their vision clear while wearing a mask with glasses.#1.

Use Tape“If you have to keep your mask on for hours, tape works like a charm,” Wilson says. This especially applies to healthcare professionals in his practice who are required to keep their masks on at all times, except during lunch. €œIf you're putting on your mask and taking it off a lot, tape probably isn't practical — but two small pieces of tape on the cheeks keep the mask fitted closer to your face, and the hot air out of your glasses,” he says.#2. Fit the Mask to Your FaceWhile some air leakage is to be expected, wearing a mask that fits securely to your face will prevent glass fogging and filter the virus more effectively since less air is coming in or out. Find surgical masks or N95s that come with a nose bridge, a small, flexible piece of metal or plastic that allows the mask to more closely fit the contours of your face.

Nose bridges can be sewn inside masks or affixed to the front.Read More. Why It Feels Like You Can't Breathe Inside Your Face Mask#3. Adjust Your MaskAccording to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, a minor adjustment in how you wear your mask could be enough to prevent fog as well. Simply pull the mask over your nose and rest your glasses on top of your face mask. As long as the mask is fitted close to your face, this should prevent hot air from slipping out.#4.

Spray Your GlassesA former ice hockey player, Wilson says the protective visor under his helmet would often fog with hot air while he was on the ice during games. Like an ocean diver, he would use de-misting solution or a defogging spray (such as this one) to keep his visor free of fog. The same concept applies to eyeglass fog caused by masking, he says. €œYou can either buy a spray or you can make your own with either shaving cream or soap and water,” says Wilson. €œWiping some shaving cream on your glasses and then wiping it off will coat them with a similar surface-tension altering compound that prevents fog.”.

As flu season creeps up on the how can i buy zofran Northern Hemisphere, cold and flu relief medications will inevitably fly off store shelves. A natural remedy that shoppers might reach for is elderberry, a small, blackish-purple fruit that companies turn into syrups, lozenges and gummies. Though therapeutic uses of the berry date back centuries, Michael Macknin, a pediatrician at the Cleveland Clinic, hadn’t heard of how can i buy zofran using elderberry to treat the flu until a patient’s mother asked him about it.

Some industry-sponsored research claims that the herbal remedy could cut the length of the symptoms by up to four days. For a comparison, Tamiflu, an how can i buy zofran FDA-approved treatment, only reduces flu duration by about a single day. €œI said, 'Gee, if that’s really true [about elderberry], it would be a huge benefit,'” Macknin says.

But the effectiveness and safety of elderberry is still fairly unclear. Unlike the over-the-counter medicines at your local pharmacy, elderberry hasn't been how can i buy zofran through rigorous FDA testing and approval. However, Macknin and his team recently published a study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, which found that elderberry treatments did nothing for flu patients.

This prompts a need for further studies into the remedy — work that unfortunately stands a low chance of how can i buy zofran happening in the future, Macknin says. Looking For ProofElderberries are full of chemicals that could be good for your health. Like similar fruits, the berries contain high levels of antioxidants, compounds that shut down reactions how can i buy zofran in our bodies that damage cells.

But whether or not elderberry's properties also help immune systems fend off a virus is murky. There are only a handful of studies that have examined if elderberries reduced the severity or duration of the flu. And though some of the work prior how can i buy zofran to Macknin’s was well-designed and supported this herbal remedy as a helpful flu aid, at least some — and potentially all — of those studies were funded by elderberry treatment manufacturers.Macknin says an elderberry supplement company provided his team with their products and a placebo version for free, but that the company wasn’t involved in the research beyond that.

Macknin's study is the largest one conducted on elderberry to date, with 87 influenza patients completing the entire treatment course. Participants in the study were also welcome to take Tamiflu, for ethical reasons, as how can i buy zofran the team didn’t want to exclude anyone from taking a proven flu therapy. Additionally, each participant took home either a bottle of elderberry syrup or the placebo with instructions on when and how to take it.

The research team called participants how can i buy zofran every day for a symptom check and to remind them to take their medication.By chance, it turned out that a higher percentage of the patients given elderberry syrup had gotten their flu shot and also chose to take Tamiflu. Since the vaccination can reduce the severity of infection in recipients who still come down with the flu, the study coincidentally operated in favor of those who took the herbal remedy, Macknin says. Those patients could have dealt with a shorter, less-intense illness because of the Tamiflu and vaccination.

€œEverything was stacked to have it how can i buy zofran turn out better [for the elderberry group],” Macknin says, “and it turned out the same.” The researchers found no difference in illness duration or severity between the elderberry and placebo groups. While analyzing the data, the team also found that those on the herbal treatment might have actually fared worse than those on the placebo. The potential for how can i buy zofran this intervention to actually harm instead of help influenza patients explains why Macknin thinks the therapy needs further research.But, don't expect that work to happen any time soon.

Researchers are faced with a number of challenges when it comes to studying the efficacy of herbal remedies. For starters, there's little financial incentive to how can i buy zofran investigate if they actually work. Plant products are challenging to patent, making them less lucrative prospects for pharmaceutical companies or research organizations to investigate.

Additionally, investigations that try and prove a proposed therapy as an effective drug — like the one Macknin and his team accomplished — are expensive, Macknin says. Those projects need FDA how can i buy zofran oversight and additional paperwork, components that drive up study costs. €œIt’s extraordinarily expensive and there’s no money in it for anybody,” Macknin says.Talk To Your DoctorUltimately, research on elderberry therapies for flu patients is a mixed bag, and deserves more attention from scientists.

However, if you still want to discuss elderberry treatments for the flu with your doctor, that’s a conversation you should feel comfortable having, says Erica how can i buy zofran McIntyre, an expert focused on health and environmental psychology in the School of Public Health at the University of Technology Sydney. Navigating what research says about a particular herbal medicine is challenging for patients and health practitioners alike. The process is how can i buy zofran made more complex by the range of similar-sounding products on the market that lack standardized ingredients, McIntyre says.

But when doctors judge or shame patients for asking about non-conventional healthcare interventions, the response can distance people and push them closer to potentially unproven treatments. Even worse, those individuals might start to keep their herbal remedies a secret. €œIt is that fear about being judged for use of that medication,” McIntyre says, how can i buy zofran that drives up to 50 percent of people taking herbal treatments to withhold that information from healthcare practitioners.

That’s a dangerous choice, as some herbal and traditional medications can interact and cause health problems.If a physician shames someone for asking about alternative medicines, it’s likely time to find a new doctor, McIntyre says. Look for someone who will listen to your concerns — whether it's that you feel traditional treatments haven’t worked for you, or that you didn’t like the side effects, the two common reasons people pursue herbal treatments in the first how can i buy zofran place. €œYou’re not necessarily looking for a doctor that will let you do whatever you want,” McIntyre says, “but that they actually consider you as a patient, your treatment choices and your treatment priorities, and communicate in a way that’s supportive.” And if a doctor suggests that you avoid a treatment you’re interested in, ask why.

They generally have a good reason, McIntyre says.For now, know that even if your doctor doesn’t support you taking elderberry, there are other proven preventative measures that are worth your while — like the flu shot. Anyone six months or older should get it, Macknin says, and stick to the protocols we’re used to following to prevent COVID-19 infections, like how can i buy zofran social distancing, mask-wearing and hand-washing. Those measures also help prevent flu transmission, too — something, so far, no elderberry supplement package can claim.The yearly influenza season threatens to make the COVID-19 pandemic doubly deadly, but I believe that this isn’t inevitable.There are two commonly given vaccines – the pneumococcal vaccine and the Hib vaccine – that protect against bacterial pneumonias.

These bacteria complicate both influenza and COVID-19, often leading how can i buy zofran to death. My examination of disease trends and vaccination rates leads me to believe that broader use of the pneumococcal and Hib vaccines could guard against the worst effects of a COVID-19 illness.I am an immunologist and physiologist interested in the effects of combined infections on immunity. I have reached my insight by juxtaposing two seemingly unrelated how can i buy zofran puzzles.

Infants and children get SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, but very rarely become hospitalized or die. And case numbers and death rates from COVID-19 began varying greatly from nation to nation and city to city even before lockdowns began. I wondered why.One night I woke up how can i buy zofran with a possible answer.

Vaccination rates. Most children, beginning how can i buy zofran at age two months, are vaccinated against numerous diseases. Adults less so.

And, both infant and adult how can i buy zofran vaccination rates vary widely across the world. Could differences in the rates of vaccination against one or more diseases account for differences in COVID-19 risks?. As someone who had previously investigated other pandemics such as the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918-19 and AIDS, and who has worked with vaccines, I had a strong background for tracking down the relevant data to test my hypothesis.Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates Correlate With Lower COVID-19 Cases and DeathsI gathered national and some local data on vaccination rates against influenza, polio, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), tuberculosis (BCG), pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib).

I correlated them with COVID-19 case rates and death rates for 24 nations that how can i buy zofran had experienced their COVID-19 outbreaks at about the same time. I controlled for factors such as percentage of the population who were obese, diabetic or elderly.I found that only pneumococcal vaccines afforded statistically significant protection against COVID-19. Nations such as Spain, Italy, Belgium, Brazil, Peru and Chile that have the highest COVID-19 rates per million have the poorest pneumococcal vaccination rates among both how can i buy zofran infants and adults.

Nations with the lowest rates of COVID-19 – Japan, Korea, Denmark, Australia and New Zealand – have the highest rates of pneumococcal vaccination among both infants and adults.A recent preprint study (not yet peer-reviewed) from researchers at the Mayo Clinic has also reported very strong associations between pneumococcal vaccination and protection against COVID-19. This is especially true among minority patients who are bearing how can i buy zofran the brunt of the coronavirus pandemic. The report also suggests that other vaccines, or combinations of vaccines, such as Hib and MMR may also provide protection.These results are important because in the U.S., childhood vaccination against pneumococci – which protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria – varies by state from 74% to 92%.

Although the CDC recommends that all adults 18-64 in high risk groups for COVID-19 and all adults over the age of 65 get a pneumococcal vaccination, only 23% of high-risk adults and 64% of those over the age of 65 do so.Similarly, although the CDC recommends at all infants and some high-risk adults be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), only 80.7% of children in the U.S. And a how can i buy zofran handful of immunologically compromised adults have been. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccination rates are significantly lower in minority populations in the U.S.

And in countries that have been hit harder by COVID-19 how can i buy zofran than the U.S.Based on these data, I advocate universal pneumococcal and Hib vaccination among children, at-risk adults and all adults over 65 to prevent serious COVID-19 disease.Left. Combined rates of childhood and adult (over 65) pneumococcal vaccination (out of a possible 200). Right.

Cases (per million) population of COVID-19 at about 90 days into the pandemic for 24 nations. Nations with high pneumococcal vaccination rates have low COVID-19 case rates. (Credit.

CC BY-SA)How Pneumococcal Vaccination Protects Against COVID-19Protection against serious COVID-19 disease by pneumococcal and Hib vaccines makes sense for several reasons. First, recent studies reveal that the majority of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and in some studies nearly all, are infected with streptococci, which causes pneumococcal pneumonias, Hib or other pneumonia-causing bacteria. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccinations should protect coronavirus patients from these infections and thus significantly cut the risk of serious pneumonia.I also found that pneumococcal, Hib and possibly rubella vaccines may confer specific protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 by means of “molecular mimicry.”Molecular mimicry occurs when the immune system thinks one microbe looks like another.

In this case, proteins found in pneumococcal vaccines and, to a lesser degree, ones found in Hib and rubella vaccines as well look like several proteins produced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Two of these proteins found in pneumococcal vaccines mimic the spike and membrane proteins that permit the virus to infect cells. This suggests pneumococcal vaccination may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two other mimics are the nucleoprotein and replicase that control virus replication.

These proteins are made after viral infection, in which case pneumococcal vaccination may control, but not prevent, SARS-CoV-2 replication.Either way, these vaccines may provide proxy protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection that we can implement right now, even before we have a specific virus vaccine. Such protection may not be complete. People might still suffer a weakened version of COVID-19 but, like most infants and children, be protected against the worst effects of the infection.Fighting Influenza-related Pneumonias During the COVID-19 PandemicWhile the specific protection these other vaccines confer against COVID-19 has not yet been tested in a clinical trial, I advocate broader implementation of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination for one additional, well-validated reason.Pneumococcal and Hib pneumonias – both caused by bacteria – are the major causes of death following viral influenza.

The influenza virus rarely causes death directly. Most often, the virus makes the lungs more susceptible to bacterial pneumonias, which are deadly. Dozens of studies around the world have demonstrated that increasing rates of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination dramatically lowers influenza-related pneumonias.Similar studies demonstrate that the price of using these vaccines is balanced by savings due to lower rates of influenza-related hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions and deaths.

In the context of COVID-19, lowering rates of influenza-related hospitalizations and ICU admissions would free up resources to fight the coronavirus, independent of any effect these vaccines might have on SARS-CoV-2 itself. In my opinion, that is a winning scenario.In short, we need not wait for a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to slow down COVID-19.I believe that we can and should act now by fighting the coronavirus with all the tools at our disposal, including influenza, Hib, pneumococcal and perhaps rubella vaccinations.Preventing pneumococcal and Hib complications of influenza and COVID-19, and perhaps proxy-vaccinating against SARS-CoV-2 itself, helps everyone. Administering these already available and well-tested pneumococcal and Hib vaccines to people will save money by freeing up hospital beds and ICUs.

It will also improve public health by reducing the spread of multiple infections and boost the economy by nurturing a healthier population.Robert Root-Bernstein is a Professor of Physiology at Michigan State University. This article was originally published on The Conversation under a Creative Commons liscense Read the original here.This story appeared in the November 2020 issue as "Bacteria and the Brain." Subscribe to Discover magazine for more stories like this.It’s not always easy to convince people that the human gut is a sublime and wondrous place worthy of special attention. Sarkis Mazmanian discovered that soon after arriving at Caltech for his first faculty job 14 years ago, when he explained to a local artist what he had in mind for the walls outside his new office.The resulting mural greets visitors to the Mazmanian Lab today.

A vaguely psychedelic, 40-foot-long, tube-shaped colon that’s pink, purple and red snakes down the hallway. In a panel next to it, fluorescent yellow and green bacteria explode out of a deeply inflamed section of the intestinal tract, like radioactive lava from outer space.The mural is modest compared with what the scientist has been working on since. Over the last decade or so, Mazmanian has been a leading proponent of the idea that the flora of the human digestive tract has a far more powerful effect on the human body and mind than we thought — a scientific effort that earned him a $500,000 MacArthur Fellowship “Genius Grant” in 2012.

Since then, Mazmanian and a small but growing cadre of fellow microbiologists have amassed a tantalizing body of evidence on the microbiome’s role in all kinds of brain disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and depression.But the results they’ve seen in autism could, in the end, prove the most transformative. Autism affects about 1 in 59 children in the U.S., and involves profound social withdrawal, communication problems, and sometimes anxiety and aggression. The causes of the brain disorder have remained speculative.

Now, Mazmanian and other researchers are finding that autism may be inextricably linked to — or even caused by — irregularities in the gut microbiome.A Biology StoryAt 47, Mazmanian — with his shaved head, flannel shirt and skinny jeans — resembles a young, urban hipster on his way to write at the local café. Originally, literary life was his plan. Born in Lebanon to two Armenian refugees, neither of whom had more than a first-grade education, Mazmanian landed in the class of an energetic high school English teacher in California’s San Fernando Valley, where his family first settled.

The teacher recognized his gift for language and encouraged him to pursue a career in literature. Mazmanian enrolled at UCLA in 1990, planning to major in English.Everything changed when he took his first biology class. Hunched over his new, thick textbook in the library, reading about basic biological concepts like photosynthesis, Mazmanian felt a vast new world opening up to him.Sarkis Mazmanian, shown in front of a mural that celebrates the human gut, is part of a group of microbiologists researching the effects of the digestive tract on a range of disorders.

(Credit. Caltech)“For the first time in my life, I wanted to turn the page and see where the story was going to go,” he says. €œI think I decided that minute to become a scientist.”Mazmanian was most fascinated by the idea that tiny organisms, invisible to the naked eye, could function as powerful, self-contained machines — powerful enough to take over and destroy the human body.

After graduating with a degree in microbiology, Mazmanian joined a UCLA infectious diseases lab and began studying bacteria that cause staph infections.As his dissertation defense approached, Mazmanian read a one-page commentary penned by a prominent microbiologist, highlighting the fact that our intestines are teeming with hundreds, if not thousands, of different species of bacteria. But it was still largely unknown what they are and how they affect the human body.When Mazmanian dug further, he found that no one had yet answered what seemed to him to be the most obvious question. Why would the human immune system, designed to attack and destroy foreign invaders, allow hundreds of species of bacteria to live and thrive in our guts unmolested?.

To him, the bacteria’s survival implied that we had evolved to coexist with them. And if that were so, he reasoned, there must be some benefit to both the microbes and the human body — a symbiotic relationship. But what was it?.

Gut InvadersMazmanian set out to study the link between gut microbes and the immune system. As a postdoctoral researcher, he joined the lab of Harvard University infectious disease specialist Dennis Kasper.To start, Mazmanian examined how the immune systems of germ-free mice — lab mice completely protected, starting at birth, from all microbes — differed from those of mice with either few or normal levels of microbes. He expected this initial census would be just a first step in a long and arduous quest for scientific pay dirt.

But when he went to examine a printout of his results in the lab, he realized immediately he might already be onto something big. The germ-free mice had a 30 to 40 percent reduction in a specific type of immune cell known as helper T-cells.This colorized close-up of a mouse’s gut reveals the tight relationship between the gut microbe Bacteroides fragilis (red) and the epithelial surface of the colon (blue). (Credit.

Caltech)Since helper T-cells play a key role in coordinating attacks against invading pathogens, the finding suggested that the immune systems of the germ-free mice were far less robust than those found in peers with normal levels of microbes.“That was exciting, right?. € Mazmanian recalls. €œObviously I repeated it and tested it in a number of different ways.

Then I asked the next question. €˜Can I restore the [immune] function in an adult animal?. €™â€‰â€Mazmanian colonized the guts of the immunocompromised, germ-free mice with microbes from standard lab mice.

After receiving the fecal transplant, their T-cell counts shot up. Within a month, their numbers were identical to mice raised outside the germ-free bubble.Resolving to identify the microorganisms causing this transformation, Mazmanian resorted to trial and error. One by one, he added strains of bacteria found in the guts of mice to the guts of germ-free mice.He got nowhere with the first five or six species he examined.

Then, simply because it was convenient, he decided to test one more that was readily available in his lab. Mazmanian’s adviser, Kasper, had been studying a gut microbe called Bacteroides fragilis. When Mazmanian implanted one of Kasper’s specimens into the gut of his germ-free mice, the results were dramatic.

The T-cell numbers spiked to normal. Eventually, Mazmanian demonstrated he could reproduce this effect simply by adding a single molecule that these bacteria produce, called polysaccharide A, to their guts.“There was no logic in the choice whatsoever,” Mazmanian recalls. €œ[B.

Fragilis] was available, it came from the gut.” In other words, he got lucky.Mazmanian dug deeper and discovered that the biggest impact B. Fragilis had was on the population of a subtype of helper T-cells called regulatory, or suppressor, T-cells. These cells play a key role in preventing the immune system from attacking its host body, protecting against autoimmune or inflammatory diseases.

It was the first time any scientist had demonstrated that a single compound from a single microbe could reverse a specific problem with the immune system.To Mazmanian, the finding, published in 2005 in the journal Cell, alluded to new approaches to treating a wide array of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic disorders. What if it were possible to help a faulty immune system by tweaking a patient’s microbiome?. It was with this exploration in mind that he arrived in Pasadena in 2006 to set up his lab at Caltech.A Convenient CollaborationA few years later, Mazmanian was having lunch on campus with neuroscientist and colleague Paul Patterson.

Patterson had been preoccupied with a mystery that had, for years, confounded those studying autism in humans. When pregnant mothers have a severe infection in the second trimester, their babies are much more likely to develop autism.As Mazmanian tells it, Patterson was a man of few words, and at lunch Mazmanian was “going on and on” about his own work.“You know,” Patterson interjected thoughtfully, “I think kids with autism have GI issues.”Patterson recalled reading that something like 60 percent of children with autism had some form of clinical GI problem, such as bloating, constipation, flatulence or diarrhea. Was it possible, he wondered, that there was a microbiome connection?.

As they talked, Mazmanian’s excitement grew.A few years earlier, Patterson had discovered that when he exposed pregnant mice to pathogens like the influenza virus, they gave birth to pups that grew up more likely to be startled by loud noises, to shy away from social contact and to groom themselves repetitively — symptoms that resemble those of autism. Patterson was in the process of comparing the brains of these autism-mimicking mice with their neurotypical cousins to see if he could detect any differences that might explain how the maternal immune system was somehow interfering with the pups’ brain development.Mazmanian had a suggestion. The next time Patterson sacrificed one of his autistic mice to study their brains, what if he set the intestines aside for his colleague down the hall?.

When the guts arrived in Mazmanian’s lab, he found that the intestines of the neurotypical mice looked normal. But the guts of the autism-mimicking offspring were almost uniformly inflamed. Could it be that the microbiome was the cause of this inflammation?.

And could that, in turn, be somehow connected to the behavioral symptoms?. Throughout the winter and spring of 2012, Mazmanian and Patterson continued their conversation. Mazmanian found distinct differences in the microbiomes of the mice.

And, they noticed, the mice with the features of autism had leaky gut syndrome, an increased permeability of the gut lining that can allow pathogens and allergens to leach out. This condition had also been reported in children with autism.So Mazmanian and Patterson turned their attention outside the gut. They took blood samples to see if any gut microbes, or the compounds they produce, were circulating in the rest of the body.

They homed in on one molecule in particular, called 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, which was roughly 45 times as abundant in the mice that had symptoms of autism. And it looked familiar. Structurally, it was almost identical to a molecule recently found to be significantly elevated in human children with autism.It was enough to take the next step.

Every day for three weeks, Mazmanian injected the molecule, harvested from the mice with autism-like symptoms, directly into the bloodstream of 5-week-old normal lab mice (the age at which the autistic mice normally developed leaky gut). Then Mazmanian and his team gave them a series of behavioral tests. The mice were far more easily startled and were less comfortable in large empty spaces than their untreated peers, indications of an increase in anxiety-related behaviors commonly seen in the mice with autism-like symptoms.

The researchers published their results in Cell in 2013.Though surprising, the data made sense in some ways. Many drug companies rely on small-molecule drugs that can be taken orally, but still manage to cross the blood-brain barrier and affect behavior. It seemed entirely possible that small molecules, created by bacteria in the gut, could enter the bloodstream and reach the brain.

And they don’t even have to leak out of the gut to do so.Of Mice and MenPatterson died in 2014, at age 70, just six months after the publication of the duo’s groundbreaking Cell paper. Around the same time, a series of parallel experiments in a clinic hundreds of miles away was already paving the way forward. While Patterson and Mazmanian had been working in mice, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, a microbiologist at Arizona State University, had teamed up with Jim Adams, who directs the university’s autism and Asperger’s research program, to study humans.The researchers were conducting a detailed analysis of the microbiome of human autism patients and found that the bacteria were far less diverse in the children with autism.

Notably, several important species involved in the digestion of carbohydrates were severely depleted.Krajmalnik-Brown and Adams launched a preliminary trial to test the effects of fecal transplants on 18 children between the ages of 7 and 16 with severe autism, who also had severe GI issues. The researchers administered powerful antibiotics to kill off the microbiomes of the children and followed them with a bowel cleanse. They then replaced the microbes with transplanted flora taken from the guts of healthy neurotypical adult volunteers.The results were better than anyone could have expected.

The procedure resulted in a large reduction in GI symptoms and increased the diversity of bacteria in the children’s guts. But more significantly, their neurological symptoms were reduced. At the onset of the study in 2017, an independent evaluator found 83 percent of participants had severe autism.

Two years after the initial trial, only 17 percent were rated as severely autistic. And 44 percent were no longer on the autism scale.“[My child] did a complete 180,” says Dana Woods, whose then-7-year-old son Ethan enrolled in the initial study five years ago. €œHis ability to communicate is so much different now.

He’s just so much more present. He’s so much more aware. He’s no longer in occupational therapy.

He’s no longer in speech therapy. After the study, he tested two points away from a neurotypical child.”In their first report on the trial in 2017, the team highlighted a number of distinct changes in the microbiome after the transplants, in particular a surge in the populations of three types of bacteria. Among them was a four-fold increase in Bifidobacterium, a probiotic organism that seems to play a key role in the maintenance of a healthy gut.But figuring out what was happening on a cellular level — to really look inside some guts — would require another vehicle.

The ASU team needed Mazmanian’s mice.“At the end of the day, what we care about is healing people and how the microbiome affects people,” explains Krajmalnik-Brown. €œThat’s why we work with people. But with mice you can do things that are more mechanistic.”The Great Mouse Detective(Credit.

Caltech)Together, Krajmalnik-Brown, Mazmanian and their collaborators would uncover some tantalizing new insights that go a long way to solving the mystery. In May 2019, the team published another high-profile paper in Cell, after they transplanted stool samples from Krajmalnik-Brown’s severely autistic patients into the guts of Mazmanian’s germ-free mice. The offspring of these mice showed the autism-like symptoms, such as repetitive and compulsive behavior.This time, the team dug even deeper into the biochemical processes playing out in the brain, looking not just at behavior but at the chemicals involved in creating it.

The mice that developed autism-like behaviors had measurably lower levels of two substances called taurine and 5-aminovaleric acid (5AV). When they dug into the literature, the team learned that these two substances are known to mimic activity of a key signaling agent in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) — a neurotransmitter that other studies have found is deficient in the brains of children with autism.What’s more, some have speculated that the tendency of children with autism to experience sensory overstimulation may stem from the inability to tamp down overexcited neurons. A lack of GABA could lead to just that.The scientists next orally administered high levels of taurine and 5AV to pregnant mice with the autistic children’s microbiomes.

When their pups were born, the researchers continued to feed the young the substances until they reached adulthood. Compared with untreated animals, the second-generation mice had significantly fewer behavioral symptoms. Taurine reduced repetitive behavior, as measured by marble burying, increased the level of social interaction, and relieved anxiety.

Mice administered 5AV were more active and social.“We healed humans with behavioral problems,” says Krajmalnik-Brown. €œ[And we] transferred some of those deficits and behaviors to mice — basically the opposite. It’s huge.”Mazmanian hopes to take the next step in the months ahead.“I can flip a switch, turn on a light, I know that switch turns on that light.

I don’t know the circuit, I don’t know where the wire is,” Mazmanian says. €œExactly how that’s happening … we just don’t understand that.”This most recent study, by itself, hardly proves that dysregulated microbiomes cause the brain disorder — a point that plenty of other scientists skeptical of Mazmanian’s work are happy to make.“The paper made a big splash, but trying to model psychiatric-related human conditions in mice, in my view, is a little bit of a stretch,” says Sangram Sisodia, a neurobiologist at the University of Chicago who studies the microbiome. €œA mouse with autism?.

€Nor was that the only criticism. Several researchers have suggested that the group didn’t give proper attention to one of their tests ­— one whose results conflicted with their thesis ­— while others found flaws in the statistical methods they used to assess their results. Mazmanian downplays these criticisms, but agrees the work is not yet conclusive.Meanwhile, the ASU trial has also engendered skepticism, mainly due to its tiny sample size, the lack of a control group and the methods by which the children were assessed for autism severity.

Krajmalnik-Brown and Adams say they stand by their results, but agree more research is needed. In recent months, they have launched two new studies that will address these issues.Adams insists the work is already changing lives. €œWe followed up with every one of our 18 participants,” he says, referring to the children who received fecal transplants.

€œSure enough, we found that most of the GI benefits had remained. And family after family said their child just slowly, steadily continued making more improvement.” They published the update in Scientific Reports in spring 2019.“I’m not ready to say the case is closed,” says Mazmanian. €œHealthy skepticism is a good thing.

I believe the preclinical data, I believe the mouse data. But there’s a lot of studies that still need to be done.” A Healthy Gut, A New OutlookEthan Woods had GI issues and symptoms of autism until researchers introduced new microbes to his gut. His mother says the treatment changed everything.

(Credit. Dana Woods)Prior to his fecal transplant at age 7, Ethan Woods suffered from chronic and severe diarrhea, constipation and cramping, symptoms so extreme that to his mother, Dana, he sounded like “a bit like a woman in labor when he was trying to have a bowel movement.” “It was just awful watching your child go through this,” she says, explaining that when she enrolled her autistic son in the Arizona State study, her “only goal was to fix his gut.”Remarkably, Ethan’s agony began to disappear just a few weeks into the trial. But that was not the most dramatic difference.

Before the transplant, Ethan’s speech was drawn out and slow, his language skills rudimentary. He seemed to live in his own bubble. He had frequent outbursts.

For as long as Dana could remember, her mornings with Ethan had been marked by arguing, fighting, pushing and anger. But then one morning, something shocking happened.“He woke me up one morning with his face right in my face with this big smile and he said, ‘Morning, Mom!. €™â€‰â€ she recalls.

€œAnd he was just excited and happy and ready to go about his day with this big smile. It choked me up to the point where I teared up because I had never experienced a happy kid in the morning.”Later, Ethan carried over an iPad and opened an app with a talking cat that repeats back the words children speak aloud. He played back a video recording of himself from just a few weeks earlier.“[He] looks me in the eye and says, ‘Mom, why did I talk like that?.

What is wrong with me?. €™ And as soon as he did that, I caught my breath. I had to compose myself and say, ‘I don’t know.

But do you feel better?. Do you feel different?. Why do you think?.

€™â€‰â€Ethan’s communication skills had already begun to improve. Within a year of the study, his speech therapist graduated him from speech therapy because he had met all his goals.“He went from one end of the rainbow all the way to the other end of the rainbow,” she says. €œPrior to the study, I was very afraid.

My biggest fear was ‘how is he going to navigate the world when I’m not here?. €™ And I think I have a lot of hope now that he is going to be OK now on his own.”There’s something strange about the female orgasm, something that scientists have been unable to explain. Biological functions are normally discussed in terms of evolutionary pressure, or reproductive advantage.

If a biological trait improves your chances of having more offspring, then it’s more likely to stick around in your species. The male orgasm makes perfect sense — ejaculate contains the genetic material that’s necessary for making babies. But the female orgasm has been harder to nail down.

Fertilization doesn’t depend on it, and “fun” isn’t exactly in the pantheon of evolutionary explanations.Researchers that study how the female orgasm relates to reproductive success have two main options — either ask people invasive questions about their most personal moments, or to find a way to stick probes in or on them during said moments. Neither of these approaches have resulted in the kind of “wet lab” research that’s the gold standard for biological understanding.What we do know, despite widespread cultural discomfort with talking openly about sex and pleasure, is that there appears to be significant sexual dysfunction in American society. Back in 2014, researchers from the Kinsey Institute, the preeminent U.S.

Academy for the study of sex and relationships, said as much. In a survey of nearly 3,000 people, they found that men, straight or gay, orgasmed 85 percent of the time during consensual sexual encounters. Lesbian women orgasmed less often, 75 percent of the time, while straight women fared worst with just a 60 percent chance of orgasm.

Other studies have shown that something like 10-15 percent of women experience lifelong anorgasmia, meaning they’ve never experienced orgasm. A further 40 percent of women report some kind of inability to reach orgasm in the past year.The orgasm gap is hard to explain. Some think that it comes down to straight men’s finesse, or lack thereof, citing the difference between straight and lesbian satisfaction.

Indeed, it makes sense that knowing your way around the territory would help. But for many couples this isn’t a helpful revelation, since the emotional maturity necessary to teach sexual dexterity is often out of reach. Shortcut to SatisfactionLuckily, we live in an era of Silicon Valley disruption, which has even started lapping at the shores of sex research.

Technologist Liz Klinger is at the forefront of this transition. She and her team have built a platform that lets people become citizen scientists of sex —without ever having to get out from between the sheets.About a decade ago, Klinger’s company, Lioness, released what they billed as the first “smart vibrator,” a sex toy that could actually learn about you. The final product was a far cry from the first prototype, which was much more laboratory object than sex toy.The “test device was this whole mess of wires, with a hard connection.

We had to physically send it to our beta testers, who used it and sent it back,” recalls Klinger. The researchers would download the data collected by the toy’s four sensors — temperature, motion, acceleration and pressure — and compile it into a chart that represented arousal and orgasm, as told through the story of pelvic-floor muscle contractions.It was an immediate success for sex partners who needed ways to talk about pleasure in a more objective way. Klinger recalled that when she got the first beta-test couple on the phone, “the wife was like ‘holy crap, we finally were able to talk about these things that I’ve had a lot of trouble talking about.’ It turned out that she wanted more foreplay, and he didn’t know quite that that meant.

He’d spend more time, but it just didn’t match up, you know?. € With the company’s signature offering in hand — a chart of sexual arousal over time — Klinger found that couples could have a conversation “without the subtext of ‘oh, you’re not good enough, or I don’t like you enough,’ on the husband’s part and ‘I’m so tired of talking about this’ on the wife’s part,” she says. The chart “can change people’s perceptions of their own experiences, and how they talk about them with others.”Doing the Deed — For ScienceThis spring, the company has launched a research platform dubbed Lioness 2.0 — a new optional service that, unsurprisingly, their data-obsessed users have greeted with open arms.

Now, instead of simply using the toy to understand themselves better, Lioness owners can opt in to the kinds of hands-on studies that are necessary for a deeper understanding of sex and pleasure. So far, the company is working with Nigeria’s Society for Family Health to study how pleasure changes with menopause across age, race and orientation, as well as with the U.S.’s Center for Genital Health and Education to explore the role of pelvic floor muscles in orgasm.Pani Farvid, a professor of applied psychology at The New School in New York City, has some reservations about the platform. €œI really like what they’re trying to do, but there could be more added to make it a bit more comprehensive.

My concern is that there's a misconception that sex is just about the orgasm, that it’s just physiological and that pleasure just has to do with the genitals.” From where she’s sitting, “that’s a very mechanical view of sexuality.” If the Lioness is helping to equalize the orgasm gap, or helping people understand their bodies better, “I think that's great,” says Farvid. €œBut as a critical sexologist, I'm interested in delving deeper into what these practices mean.” If sex is hyper-focused on orgasm, to exclusion of everything else, she cautions that these norms “have real-life negative impacts on people's sex lives and their sense of themselves.”At this point, knee-deep in an era of data collection that was once the sole purview of white-coat-wearing scientists, it’s old news that we need to be careful with what our technology is doing to us. No tool can serve as a cure-all, even if it comes loaded with a neat app and some space-age sensors.

What it can offer, though, is the opportunity to start a conversation, and the chance to take a long, honest look at something about yourself — whether it’s the number of steps you take every day, or the way you want to be touched.Wondering how to keep your glasses from fogging up when your mask is on?. Look no further. If we've learned one thing throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it's the importance of wearing a mask.

Countless studies have shown over the past eight months that wearing a protective barrier over your nose and mouth — whether it's a standard-issue surgical mask or an N95 respirator — can significantly decrease the odds of catching and transmitting disease. What's more, some research shows that masking up can reduce the severity of an infection if a masked person does contract COVID-19. But while masks are potentially lifesaving, they can be uncomfortable, often changing your breathing patterns and fogging up your glasses when breath escapes through the top of the mask.

Among people who choose not to wear a mask to prevent the spread of COVID-19, many cite discomfort as a key reason why.Wesley Wilson, a tumor immunologist in Pennsylvania, knows how annoying it can be when your glasses are fogging up. He says fogging is “definitely a problem” among his hospital colleagues, who need to wear protective goggles and surgical masks while on the job. Fortunately, they've also picked up a few helpful hacks for keeping their vision clear while wearing a mask with glasses.#1.

Use Tape“If you have to keep your mask on for hours, tape works like a charm,” Wilson says. This especially applies to healthcare professionals in his practice who are required to keep their masks on at all times, except during lunch. €œIf you're putting on your mask and taking it off a lot, tape probably isn't practical — but two small pieces of tape on the cheeks keep the mask fitted closer to your face, and the hot air out of your glasses,” he says.#2.

Fit the Mask to Your FaceWhile some air leakage is to be expected, wearing a mask that fits securely to your face will prevent glass fogging and filter the virus more effectively since less air is coming in or out. Find surgical masks or N95s that come with a nose bridge, a small, flexible piece of metal or plastic that allows the mask to more closely fit the contours of your face. Nose bridges can be sewn inside masks or affixed to the front.Read More.

Why It Feels Like You Can't Breathe Inside Your Face Mask#3. Adjust Your MaskAccording to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, a minor adjustment in how you wear your mask could be enough to prevent fog as well. Simply pull the mask over your nose and rest your glasses on top of your face mask.

As long as the mask is fitted close to your face, this should prevent hot air from slipping out.#4. Spray Your GlassesA former ice hockey player, Wilson says the protective visor under his helmet would often fog with hot air while he was on the ice during games. Like an ocean diver, he would use de-misting solution or a defogging spray (such as this one) to keep his visor free of fog.

The same concept applies to eyeglass fog caused by masking, he says. €œYou can either buy a spray or you can make your own with either shaving cream or soap and water,” says Wilson. €œWiping some shaving cream on your glasses and then wiping it off will coat them with a similar surface-tension altering compound that prevents fog.”.

How often can i take zofran for nausea

Science advances by the free exchange how often can i take zofran for nausea of ideas. New ones are put forward and pitted against existing ones, and fights are fought with rational arguments. Scientists tend to take this freedom for granted, and carry it over to other fields, such as politics, where challenging prevailing opinion goes under the name of how often can i take zofran for nausea dissent, and may be much less welcome. Scientists make tough dissenters for the powers that be. They cannot be dismissed offhand as incompetent, and they bring to the discussion professional standards that are hard to match.

They cannot be quietly put away for their opinions, for they belong to an international community how often can i take zofran for nausea that will support them. So, they have to be discredited in some way. In the time of the Soviet Union, the preferred charge was insanity. Dissenting scientists, such how often can i take zofran for nausea as Alexander Esenin-Volpin and Leonid Plyushch, were routinely sent to psychiatric hospitals. Nowadays, the favored charge is supporting terrorism.

Here are three examples, among many others. Turkish mathematician Tuna Altınel has lived and worked in Lyon, France since 1996 how often can i take zofran for nausea. In 2019 he participated in a public meeting in Lyon on the subject of alleged massacres in southeastern Turkey. The local Turkish consul reported on this meeting to the Turkish authorities in Ankara, mentioning that Altınel had served as a poll watcher. A charge of membership in an how often can i take zofran for nausea armed terrorist group resulted.

On an April visit to Turkey, Altınel's passport was confiscated. He was subsequently arrested and placed in pretrial detention for 81 days. Charges were later reduced how often can i take zofran for nausea to propaganda for a terrorist group. Altınel was acquitted of the latter charge in January 2020. His passport has not been restored, and the government recently sent a letter saying it will not be.

He thus remains unable to leave Turkey how often can i take zofran for nausea. Administrative sanctions not subject to public scrutiny have been widely applied in Turkey in response to political expression. With reference to the statutes invoked, the European Court of Human Rights has condemned the use of criminal procedures such as detention on remand to punish and discourage the exercise of freedom of expression. For more information see http://math.univ-lyon1.fr/SoutienTunaAltinel/? how often can i take zofran for nausea. Lang=en.

The case of Azat Miftakhov, a mathematics graduate student at Moscow State University, is somewhat special. Miftakhov was neither a public opponent how often can i take zofran for nausea of Putin's regime nor yet a professional scientist. His academic career was only starting (with a single publication in the field of stochastics). By that reason one can hardly expect that professional organizations would step up for him. However, Miftakhov's figure became a sort of litmus test for Russian academic society, how often can i take zofran for nausea dividing people into those who trust the system and those who question its justice.

Miftakhov comes from Tatarstan in the Russian Federation. While still in school, he won prizes in several math competitions and received support given to talented young people by the Ministry of Education and Science. As a how often can i take zofran for nausea student in Moscow, he became involved with the anarchist movement. In June 2018 and January 2019 Miftakhov was harassed via a telegram channel allegedly connected with Russia’s law enforcement agencies. In February 2019, right after his return from a conference in Nizhni Novgorod where Miftakhov gave his first talk in English, he was detained by the state authorities and accused of manufacturing explosives.

Miftakhov was reportedly tortured by how often can i take zofran for nausea the police. After three days he was released as the court found no evidence for his detention. In less than two days, on February 9, 2019, Miftakhov was again arrested and accused of destruction of the office window of the ruling political party, United Russia, which occurred more than a year ago. Miftakhov how often can i take zofran for nausea has pled not guilty. Despite the obvious lack of evidence, he has been kept in jail since then.

The Russian human rights center Memorial recognizes Miftakhov as a political prisoner. A letter condemning how often can i take zofran for nausea torture against Miftakhov and calling for his immediate release was signed by many prominent scientists from Russia and worldwide. For more information about both Miftakhov and Altınel see http://www.ams.org/about-us/governance/committees/humanrights On Thursday, July 16th 2020, Palestinian astrophysicist Imad Barghouthi, a professor at the university of Al-Quds in East Jerusalem, was detained by Israeli military forces during a routine stop at a military checkpoint outside of Anata. After more than two weeks without information on the reason for his detention, on August 2 Barghouthi was charged by an Israeli military prosecutor with "incitement and support for a hostile organization" on the basis of his Facebook posts. After an Israeli judge twice accepted his how often can i take zofran for nausea lawyer's request that Barghouthi be released on bail, the military commander of the West Bank ordered him placed under administrative detention until November 15.

Administrative detention is an illegal measure under international law commonly used by the Israeli military forces to hold Palestinians in prison without charge or trial. This is not the first time that the Israeli military forces have arrested Barghouthi, one of Palestine’s most prominent scientists. In 2014 he was placed under administrative detention for two months, and in 2016 he was again detained for how often can i take zofran for nausea six months. In both cases his arrest triggered significant indignation on the part of the international scientific community. The procedures may differ, but the result is the same.

Through administrative and juridical harassment, civil or military, our colleagues are deprived of their fundamental freedoms, including academic freedom. It is up to scientists to alert their professional associations and to mobilize, as they did at the time of the Soviet Union, to demand that Altınel, Miftakhov, and Barghouthi recover their freedom and their rights, immediately and unconditionally. The views expressed by the authors are their own, and do not represent those of their institutions, which are included for identification purposes only..

Science advances by the free how can i buy zofran exchange of ideas. New ones are put forward and pitted against existing ones, and fights are fought with rational arguments. Scientists tend to take this freedom for granted, and carry it over to other fields, such as how can i buy zofran politics, where challenging prevailing opinion goes under the name of dissent, and may be much less welcome. Scientists make tough dissenters for the powers that be.

They cannot be dismissed offhand as incompetent, and they bring to the discussion professional standards that are hard to match. They cannot how can i buy zofran be quietly put away for their opinions, for they belong to an international community that will support them. So, they have to be discredited in some way. In the time of the Soviet Union, the preferred charge was insanity.

Dissenting scientists, such as how can i buy zofran Alexander Esenin-Volpin and Leonid Plyushch, were routinely sent to psychiatric hospitals. Nowadays, the favored charge is supporting terrorism. Here are three examples, among many others. Turkish mathematician Tuna how can i buy zofran Altınel has lived and worked in Lyon, France since 1996.

In 2019 he participated in a public meeting in Lyon on the subject of alleged massacres in southeastern Turkey. The local Turkish consul reported on this meeting to the Turkish authorities in Ankara, mentioning that Altınel had served as a poll watcher. A charge how can i buy zofran of membership in an armed terrorist group resulted. On an April visit to Turkey, Altınel's passport was confiscated.

He was subsequently arrested and placed in pretrial detention for 81 days. Charges were how can i buy zofran later reduced to propaganda for a terrorist group. Altınel was acquitted of the latter charge in January 2020. His passport has not been restored, and the government recently sent a letter saying it will not be.

He thus remains unable to how can i buy zofran leave Turkey. Administrative sanctions not subject to public scrutiny have been widely applied in Turkey in response to political expression. With reference to the statutes invoked, the European Court of Human Rights has condemned the use of criminal procedures such as detention on remand to punish and discourage the exercise of freedom of expression. For more information how can i buy zofran see http://math.univ-lyon1.fr/SoutienTunaAltinel/?.

Lang=en. The case of Azat Miftakhov, a mathematics graduate student at Moscow State University, is somewhat special. Miftakhov was neither a public how can i buy zofran opponent of Putin's regime nor yet a professional scientist. His academic career was only starting (with a single publication in the field of stochastics).

By that reason one can hardly expect that professional organizations would step up for him. However, Miftakhov's figure became a sort of litmus test for how can i buy zofran Russian academic society, dividing people into those who trust the system and those who question its justice. Miftakhov comes from Tatarstan in the Russian Federation. While still in school, he won prizes in several math competitions and received support given to talented young people by the Ministry of Education and Science.

As a student in Moscow, he became involved with the anarchist how can i buy zofran movement. In June 2018 and January 2019 Miftakhov was harassed via a telegram channel allegedly connected with Russia’s law enforcement agencies. In February 2019, right after his return from a conference in Nizhni Novgorod where Miftakhov gave his first talk in English, he was detained by the state authorities and accused of manufacturing explosives. Miftakhov was reportedly tortured how can i buy zofran by the police.

After three days he was released as the court found no evidence for his detention. In less than two days, on February 9, 2019, Miftakhov was again arrested and accused of destruction of the office window of the ruling political party, United Russia, which occurred more than a year ago. Miftakhov has pled how can i buy zofran not guilty. Despite the obvious lack of evidence, he has been kept in jail since then.

The Russian human rights center Memorial recognizes Miftakhov as a political prisoner. A letter condemning torture against Miftakhov and calling for his immediate release was signed by many prominent scientists from how can i buy zofran Russia and worldwide. For more information about both Miftakhov and Altınel see http://www.ams.org/about-us/governance/committees/humanrights On Thursday, July 16th 2020, Palestinian astrophysicist Imad Barghouthi, a professor at the university of Al-Quds in East Jerusalem, was detained by Israeli military forces during a routine stop at a military checkpoint outside of Anata. After more than two weeks without information on the reason for his detention, on August 2 Barghouthi was charged by an Israeli military prosecutor with "incitement and support for a hostile organization" on the basis of his Facebook posts.

After an Israeli judge twice accepted his lawyer's how can i buy zofran request that Barghouthi be released on bail, the military commander of the West Bank ordered him placed under administrative detention until November 15. Administrative detention is an illegal measure under international law commonly used by the Israeli military forces to hold Palestinians in prison without charge or trial. This is not the first time that the Israeli military forces have arrested Barghouthi, one of Palestine’s most prominent scientists. In 2014 he was placed under administrative detention for two months, and in 2016 he was again detained for six how can i buy zofran months.

In both cases his arrest triggered significant indignation on the part of the international scientific community. The procedures may differ, but the result is the same. Through administrative and how can i buy zofran juridical harassment, civil or military, our colleagues are deprived of their fundamental freedoms, including academic freedom. It is up to scientists to alert their professional associations and to mobilize, as they did at the time of the Soviet Union, to demand that Altınel, Miftakhov, and Barghouthi recover their freedom and their rights, immediately and unconditionally.

The views expressed by the authors are their own, and do not represent those of their institutions, which are included for identification purposes only..

Back To Top