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Aug. 29, 2020 -- Chadwick Boseman, the star of the 2018 Marvel Studios megahit Black Panther, died of colon cancer Friday. He was 43. Boseman, who was diagnosed 4 years ago, had kept his condition a secret.

He filmed his recent movies ''during and between countless surgeries and chemotherapy," according to a statement issued on his Twitter account. When the actor was diagnosed in 2016, the cancer was at stage III -- meaning it had already grown through the colon wall -- but then progressed to the more lethal stage IV, meaning it had spread beyond his colon. Messages of condolences and the hashtag #Wakandaforever, referring to the fictional African nation in the Black Panther film, flooded social media Friday evening. Oprah tweeted.

"What a gentle gifted SOUL. Showing us all that Greatness in between surgeries and chemo. The courage, the strength, the Power it takes to do that. This is what Dignity looks like.

" Marvel Studios tweeted. "Your legacy will live on forever." Boseman was also known for his role as Jackie Robinson in the movie 42. Coincidentally, Friday was Major League Baseball's Jackie Robinson Day, where every player on every team wears Robinson's number 42 on their jerseys. Boseman's other starring roles include portraying James Brown in Get on Up and U.S.

Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall in Marshall. But his role as King T'Challa in Black Panther, the super hero protagonist, made him an icon and an inspiration. About Colon Cancer Boseman's death reflects a troubling recent trend, says Mark Hanna, MD, a colorectal surgeon at City of Hope, a comprehensive cancer center near Los Angeles. "We have noticed an increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in young adults," says Hanna, who did not treat Boseman.

"I've seen patients as young as their early 20s." About 104,000 cases of colon cancer will be diagnosed this year, according to American Cancer Society estimates, and another 43,000 cases of rectal cancer will be diagnosed. About 12% of those, or 18,000 cases, will be in people under age 50. As the rates have declined in older adults due to screening, rates in young adults have steadily risen. Younger patients are often diagnosed at a later stage than older adults, Hanna says, because patients and even their doctors don't think about the possibility of colon cancer.

Because it is considered a cancer affecting older adults, many younger people may brush off the symptoms or delay getting medical attention, Hanna says. In a survey of 885 colorectal cancer patients conducted by Colorectal Cancer Alliance earlier this year, 75% said they visited two or more doctors before getting their diagnosis, and 11% went to 10 or more before finding out. If found early, colon cancer is curable, Hanna says. About 50% of those with colon cancer will be diagnosed at stage I or II, which is considered localized disease, he says.

"The majority have a very good prognosis." The 5-year survival rate is about 90% for both stage I and II. But when it progresses to stage III, the cancer has begun to grow into surrounding tissues and the lymph nodes, Hanna says, and the survival rate for 5 years drops to 75%. About 25% of patients are diagnosed at stage III, he says. If the diagnosis is made at stage IV, the 5-year survival rate drops to about 10% or 15%, he says.

Experts have been trying to figure out why more young adults are getting colon cancer and why some do so poorly. "Traditionally we thought that patients who are older would have a worse outlook," Hanna says, partly because they tend to have other medical conditions too. Some experts say that younger patients might have more ''genetically aggressive disease," Hanna says. "Our understanding of colorectal cancer is becoming more nuanced, and we know that not all forms are the same." For instance, he says, testing is done for specific genetic mutations that have been tied to colon cancer.

"It's not just about finding the mutations, but finding the drug that targets [that form] best." Paying Attention to Red Flags "If you have any of what we call the red flag signs, do not ignore your symptoms no matter what your age is," Hanna says. Those are. In 2018, the American Cancer Society changed its guidelines for screening, recommending those at average risk start at age 45, not 50. The screening can be stool-based testing, such as a fecal occult blood test, or visual, such as a colonoscopy.

Hanna says he orders a colonoscopy if the symptoms suggest colon cancer, regardless of a patient's age. Family history of colorectal cancer is a risk factor, as are being obese or overweight, being sedentary, and eating lots of red meat. Sources Mark Hanna, MD, colorectal surgeon and assistant clinical professor of surgery, City of Hope, Los Angeles. American Cancer Society.

"Key Statistics for Colorectal Cancer." Twitter statement. Chadwick Boseman. American Cancer Society. "Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors." American Cancer Society.

'"Colorectal Cancer Rates Rise in Younger Adults." American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting, May 29-31, 2020. American Cancer Society "Survival Rates for Colorectal Cancer." American Cancer Society. "Colorectal Cancer Facts &. Figures.

2017-2019." © 2020 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.FRIDAY, Aug. 28, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- As many as 20% of Americans don't believe in vaccines, a new study finds. Misinformed vaccine beliefs drive opposition to public vaccine policies even more than politics, education, religion or other factors, researchers say.

The findings are based on a survey of nearly 2,000 U.S. Adults done in 2019, during the largest measles outbreak in 25 years. The researchers, from the Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC) of the University of Pennsylvania, found that negative misperceptions about vaccinations. reduced the likelihood of supporting mandatory childhood vaccines by 70%, reduced the likelihood of opposing religious exemptions by 66%, reduced the likelihood of opposing personal belief exemptions by 79%.

"There are real implications here for a vaccine for COVID-19," lead author Dominik Stecula said in an APPC news release. He conducted the research while at APPC and is now an assistant professor of political science at Colorado State University. "The negative vaccine beliefs we examined aren't limited only to the measles, mumps and rubella [MMR] vaccine, but are general attitudes about vaccination." Stecula called for an education campaign by public health professionals and journalists, among others, to preemptively correct misinformation and prepare the public to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, there was strong support for vaccination policies.

72% strongly or somewhat supported mandatory childhood vaccination, 60% strongly or somewhat opposed religious exemptions, 66% strongly or somewhat opposed vaccine exemptions based on personal beliefs. "On the one hand, these are big majorities. Well above 50% of Americans support mandatory childhood vaccinations and oppose religious and personal belief exemptions to vaccination," said co-author Ozan Kuru, a former APPC researcher, now an assistant professor of communications at the National University of Singapore. "Still, we need a stronger consensus in the public to bolster pro-vaccine attitudes and legislation and thus achieve community immunity," he added in the release.

A previous study from the 2018-2019 measles outbreak found that people who rely on social media were more likely to be misinformed about vaccines. And a more recent one found that people who got information from social media or conservative news outlets at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to be misinformed about how to prevent infection and hold conspiracy theories about it. With the coronavirus pandemic still raging, the number of Americans needed to be vaccinated to achieve community-wide immunity is not known, the researchers said. The findings were recently published online in the American Journal of Public Health.By Robert Preidt HealthDay Reporter FRIDAY, Aug.

28, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Breastfeeding mothers are unlikely to transmit the new coronavirus to their babies via their milk, researchers say. No cases of an infant contracting COVID-19 from breast milk have been documented, but questions about the potential risk remain. Researchers examined 64 samples of breast milk collected from 18 women across the United States who were infected with the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19. One sample tested positive for coronavirus RNA, but follow-up tests showed that the virus couldn't replicate and therefore, couldn't infect the breastfed infant, according to the study recently published online in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

"Detection of viral RNA does not equate to infection. It has to grow and multiply in order to be infectious and we did not find that in any of our samples," said study author Christina Chambers, a professor of pediatrics at the University of California, San Diego. She is also director of the Mommy's Milk Human Milk Research Biorepository. "Our findings suggest breast milk itself is not likely a source of infection for the infant," Chambers said in a UCSD news release.

To prevent transmission of the virus while breastfeeding, wearing a mask, hand-washing and sterilizing pumping equipment after each use are recommended. "We hope our results and future studies will give women the reassurance needed for them to breastfeed. Human milk provides invaluable benefits to mom and baby," said co-author Dr. Grace Aldrovandi, chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at UCLA Mattel Children's Hospital in Los Angeles.

WebMD News from HealthDay Sources SOURCE. University of California, San Diego, news release, Aug. 19, 2020 Copyright © 2013-2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.Nursing home staff will have to be tested regularly for COVID-19, and facilities that fail to do so will face fines, the Trump administration said Tuesday.

Even though they account for less than 1% of the nation's population, long-term care facilities account for 42% of COVID-19 deaths in the United States, the Associated Press reported. There have been more than 70,000 deaths in U.S. Nursing homes, according to the COVID Tracking Project. It's been months since the White House first urged governors to test all nursing home residents and staff, the AP reported.

WebMD News from HealthDay Copyright © 2013-2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.August 28, 2020 -- Alcohol-based hand sanitizers that are packaged in containers that look like food items or drinks could cause injury or death if ingested, according to a new warning the FDA issued Thursday. Hand sanitizers are being packaged in beer cans, water bottles, juice bottles, vodka bottles and children’s food pouches, the FDA said. Some sanitizers also contain flavors, such as chocolate or raspberry, which could cause confusion.

€œI am increasingly concerned about hand sanitizer being packaged to appear to be consumable products, such as baby food or beverages,” Stephen Hahn, MD, the FDA commissioner, said in a statement. Accidentally drinking hand sanitizer — even a small amount — is potentially lethal to children. €œThese products could confuse consumers into accidentally ingesting a potentially deadly product,” he said. €œIt’s dangerous to add scents with food flavors to hand sanitizers which children could think smells like food, eat and get alcohol poisoning.” For example, the FDA received a report about a consumer who purchased a bottle that looked like drinkable water but was actually hand sanitizer.

In another report, a retailer informed the agency about a hand sanitizer product that was marketed in a pouch that looks like a children’s snack and had cartoons on it. Meanwhile, the FDA's warning list about dangerous hand sanitizers containing methanol continues to grow as some people are drinking the sanitizers to get an alcohol high. Others have believed a rumor, circulated online, that drinking the highly potent and toxic alcohol can disinfect the body, protecting them from COVID-19 infection. Earlier this month, the FDA also issued a warning about hand sanitizers contaminated with 1-propanol.

Ingesting 1-propanol can cause central nervous system depression, which can be fatal, the agency says. Symptoms of 1-propanol exposure can include confusion, decreased consciousness, and slowed pulse and breathing. One brand of sanitizer, Harmonic Nature S de RL de MI of Mexico, are labeled to contain ethanol or isopropyl alcohol but have tested positive for 1-propanol contamination. Poison control centers and state health departments have reported an increasing number of adverse events associated with hand sanitizer ingestion, including heart issues, nervous system problems, hospitalizations and deaths, according to the statement.

The FDA encouraged consumers and health care professionals to report issues to the MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program. The agency is working with manufacturers to recall confusing and dangerous products and is encouraging retailers to remove some products from shelves. The FDA is also updating its list of hand sanitizer products that consumers should avoid. €œManufacturers should be vigilant about packaging and marketing their hand sanitizers in food or drink packages in an effort to mitigate any potential inadvertent use by consumers,” Hahn said..

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In the course of just under two months that started 40 proscan mri years ago this week, five events occurred that shaped the biotechnology industry and bioscience research. Looking back on these seminal events is a reminder of the odd ways in which change happens.Event 1. A Nobel PrizeEarly in the proscan mri morning of Tuesday, October 14, 1980, the phone rang at Paul Berg’s house in Stanford, Cal.

The jangling phone worried Berg and his wife because Berg’s father was old and ill, and they feared the worst. Instead, Berg heard the voice of his Stanford colleague, Arthur Kornberg, telling him that Paul had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. The Swedish Royal Academy had been unable to find Berg’s unlisted phone number, but one of Kornberg’s sons proscan mri had heard the news very early in the morning on the radio and called his father, who called Berg.Berg won half of that year’s prize for basic research into nucleic acids and for “certain aspects of recombinant DNA.” The other half was shared by Frederick Sanger and Walter (Wally) Gilbert for their discoveries about how to sequence DNA.advertisement Many scientists, at Stanford and elsewhere, made important contributions to the development of recombinant DNA.

Some have questioned why Berg was the sole recipient. The prizes are always difficult to award, particularly with the Nobel Committee’s self-imposed limit of no more than three awardees for any prize (except for the Peace Prize).Once the chemistry committee decided to recognize Sanger and Gilbert for sequencing — each had made substantial progress in very different ways — that left only one slot for recombinant DNA. No one doubts that Berg and his lab made major contributions to the field and were driving forces in its advance proscan mri.

But Berg had another role that made him stand out from the crowd. He was a leader, proscan mri arguably the leader, in organizing a temporary moratorium on recombinant DNA research and in organizing and running the famous Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA at which the moratorium was discussed.advertisement Event 2. A biotech IPOAround the same time Berg was learning he had won a Nobel Prize, the common stock of a 4-year-old biotech company named Genentech made its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange.

Genentech’s business was based on recombinant DNA and its first products (still two years in the future at that point) were human proteins made by bacteria into which human genes had been slipped using recombinant DNA techniques. When the market opened, the stock traded for proscan mri $35 per share. By the end of the day investors had blasted its price higher — all the way up to $88 per share — before closing at $71.The first biotech boom was on, leading many other fledgling biotech startups to go public in the next few months.

Did Genentech’s impressive IPO owe any of its oomph to that morning’s announcement of Berg’s Nobel Prize for recombinant DNA?. We proscan mri can never know.Event 3. A new innovation lawExactly one week later, on October 21, President Jimmy Carter signed into law the Stevenson Wydler Technology Innovation Act.

It responded to concerns that government-sponsored technologies were not being proscan mri commercialized frequently enough. The act encouraged U.S. National laboratories, such as Fermilab, Brookhaven, Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, among others, to spread information about government-owned technology, in part by requiring them to establish Offices of Research and Technology Applications that were to identify and promote technologies with strong commercial potential.

The Carter administration supported this bill in part because it kept control over who would commercialize those new technologies in the hands of the federal government.This is the least important of proscan mri the five events for biotechnology. The National Labs, though engaged in a surprising amount of biological research for organizations derived from nuclear weapons research, were not then hotbeds of bioscience and biotech innovation. Event 4.

A game-changing proscan mri patentTuesday, December 2, marked the fourth, quietest, but not the least important of this string of biotech events. The U.S. Patent and proscan mri Trademark Office granted U.S.

Patent No. 4,237,224, “Process for producing biologically functional molecular chimera,” to two inventors, Stanley N. Cohen of Stanford proscan mri and Herbert W.

Boyer of the University of California, San Francisco. The patent was assigned to Leland Stanford Junior University and the Regents of the University of California. As my colleague Jacob Sherkow and I wrote in 2015:“That patent, the result of research conducted in 1974 on a process of creating recombinant DNA, i.e., recombining genes, appeared to be proscan mri the holy grail for geneticists.

Rather than tedious mutational or crossbreeding studies, the Cohen-Boyer technology allowed genetics researchers to study — and create — genes in isolation. With increasing research into the function and characterization of restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA technology opened doors for researchers to both isolate and purify individual genes as well as create analogs of their own.”I haven’t been able to find any significant publicity about this patent around the time it was awarded, but for the next two decades the Cohen-Boyer patent formed the cornerstone of both proscan mri the biotech industry and of much biological research. It broadly claimed the methods of recombinant DNA and earned its assignees about $400 million.Stanford administered the Cohen-Boyer patent and took 15% of the proceeds for its trouble.

The remainder was split evenly by Stanford and the University of California system, which distributed them in different ways. Stanford’s practice was (and remains) to give proscan mri one-third of the proceeds to the inventor, one-third to the inventor’s department, and one-third to the inventor’s school. This bonanza for Stanford Medical School’s genetics department, of which Cohen was a member — about $70 million — did not endear it to Berg’s and Kornberg’s biochemistry department, which had done, in Berg’s lab and elsewhere, much of the research on recombinant DNA.

On the other hand, the genetics department had been none too pleased by who had (and had not) received the Nobel Prize.It isn’t clear to me if anyone fully realized at the time the patent was granted how important — or lucrative — it would be. Eventually, though, the Cohen-Boyer patent helped change how universities proscan mri approached commercializing research. Its large returns prompted first scores, and then hundreds, of colleges and universities to open technology licensing offices.

Today about 200 such offices exist, although only about a dozen are profitable in any given year (and these are largely the same proscan mri ones every year, including Stanford’s and the University of California’s). Event 5. Bayh-Dole becomes lawThe fifth and final event took place on Friday, December 12, when then-lame duck President Jimmy Carter signed the Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act, better known as the Bayh-Dole Act.

This law gave universities and other nonprofit research institutions a clear and easy way to own intellectual property they created, proscan mri in whole or in part, with federal research funding. It is often credited with having kickstarted the biotech industry. Along with the success of the Cohen-Boyer patent, it certainly encouraged universities to view some parts of biology as potential profit centers.But it almost didn’t come to fruition.

When Indiana Democrat Senator Birch Bayh and Kansas Republican Senator Bob Dole first introduced into the 95th Congress the Small Business Nonprofit Organization Patent Procedures Act, it was a time of great concern about America’s economy, proscan mri beset by the 1970s “stagflation” and the perceived economic challenge from Japan.Congress did not act on the bill that year, but Bayh and Dole re-introduced it in the 96th Congress. Although Democrats controlled both the Senate and the House, President Carter opposed the bill. He wanted proscan mri a more government-directed path, like the approach taken in the Stevenson-Wydler Act.

Russell Long (D-La.), the powerful chair of the Senate Finance Committee, opposed the bill from a more populist perspective. He wanted the government to get as much profit as possible from any patents. The bill did not pass either chamber before the November 1980 election.That election brought Ronald Reagan to the White House and also cost the Democrats 12 Senate seats, which would give the Republicans in the 97th Congress, starting in January 1981, their first proscan mri Senate majority since 1954.

One of the Democrats who would not be returning to the Senate was Birch Bayh, defeated by future Vice President Dan Quayle.The 96th Congress, still with a majority Democratic Senate, held a lame-duck session after the November election, one of 16 such sessions in the 39 Congresses since 1940. The urgency for it came from the lack of budget authority for most of the government, but also for some other important, difficult, and controversial legislation that had been put off until after the election.Strong support for Bayh-Dole in their ranks kept the soon-to-be majority Senate Republicans from opposing its passage. But for proscan mri the bill to be voted on in that session required unanimous consent of the Senate — which meant a thumbs up from Long.

He acquiesced, supposedly out of respect and friendship for his departing colleague, Birch Bayh.President Carter did not give any indication whether he would sign the bill. The Constitution gives a president 10 days (not proscan mri counting Sundays) to veto a bill, sign a bill, or let it become law without his signature. On the last possible day, December 12, Carter signed it.It is ironic that the Cohen-Boyer patent was issued and assigned to Stanford and UCSF before Bayh-Dole made it easier for universities to patent inventions that had benefited from federal funding.

Both institutions had used money from the NIH and private foundations in the relevant recombinant DNA research, but they did not have to wait for Bayh-Dole’s passage to patent the invention. A pre-existing patent agreement existed between the federal Department proscan mri of Health, Education, and Welfare (the precursor of the Department of Health and Human Services) and Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing that allowed Stanford and UCSF to patent the technology before Bayh-Dole took effect.So in two days short of two months, the nascent biotech industry and university biotechnology research were propelled into the future with a Nobel prize, a stunning biotech IPO, two research commercialization acts, and a fundamental patent. And no one at the time seemed to notice their collective importance.

True, there were other things going on then. During the first three weeks, Republican Ronald Reagan, who at the time seemed to be at the conservative extreme of American politics, was challenging moderately conservative Democrat Jimmy Carter, and on November 4 defeated Carter after only one term in office proscan mri. For the entire period, 53 U.S.

Diplomats and citizens from the American Embassy in Tehran, Iran, were being held captive, marking their first full year of detention in early November. The economy was still reeling from the second oil crisis and its resulting high inflation (and was about to plunge into a sharp recession).In proscan mri the midst of all that, largely unnoticed, the building blocks of a new era in biotechnology came together.And so it often is with history. Some crucial events are obvious.

Others sneak up on us proscan mri. And blatant or obscure, through all these momentous historical periods, we go on with our day-to-day jobs, loves, and lives, only rarely looking back and noticing the times in which we lived — sometimes only after 40 years.Henry T. Greely, J.D., is professor of law and professor by courtesy of genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences and chairs the steering committee for the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics.

He thanks Jacob Sherkow and Robert proscan mri Cook-Deegan for their helpful comments on the article, as well as his research assistants, Brittany Cazakoff and Cassidy Amber Pomeroy-Carter.In a defiant move, AMAG Pharmaceuticals (AMAG) is refusing to voluntarily withdraw its controversial treatment for preventing premature births, despite a request to do so made earlier this month by the Food and Drug Administration. Instead, the drug maker is seeking a hearing to review the rationale given by the regulator for wanting its Makena medication pulled off the market.The agency explained that a required post-marketing study had failed to verify a clinical benefit and that available evidence does not show Makena is effective for its approved use. A year ago, an FDA advisory panel reached the same conclusion and recommended that the drug — which has been a standard of care across the U.S.

Since it was proscan mri approved nine years ago — should be withdrawn. Unlock this article by subscribing to STAT Plus and enjoy your first 30 days free!. GET STARTED Log In | proscan mri Learn More What is it?.

STAT Plus is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis. Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included? proscan mri.

Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr.Hired someone new and exciting?. Promoted a rising star?. Finally solved proscan mri that hard-to-fill spot?.

Share the news with us, and we’ll share it with others. That’s right proscan mri. Send us your changes, and we’ll find a home for them.

Don’t be shy. Everyone wants to know who is coming and going.And here is our regular feature in proscan mri which we highlight a different person each week. This time around, we note that Merck KGaA (MRK.DE) hired Danny Bar-Zohar as global head of development for its health care business.

Previously, he was a partner at the Syncona venture capital firm and, before that, global head, clinical development &. Analytics at Novartis proscan mri (NVS). Luciano Rossetti is retiring as global head of R&D.

Unlock this article by proscan mri subscribing to STAT Plus and enjoy your first 30 days free!. GET STARTED Log In | Learn More What is it?. STAT Plus is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis.

Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health proscan mri care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr.Disarm Therapeutics, a Cambridge biotechnology firm working on new potential drugs for neurological diseases such as ALS and multiple sclerosis, will be bought by the pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Company for $135 million up front.Under the deal announced Thursday, investors in the four-year-old, privately held biotech could reap up to $1.225 billion in additional payments, depending on how well Lilly does developing and marketing new medicines resulting from the acquisition.

Unlock this article by subscribing to STAT Plus and enjoy your first proscan mri 30 days free!. GET STARTED Log In | Learn More What is it?. STAT Plus is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science proscan mri coverage and analysis.

Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you proscan mri on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr.And so, another working week will soon draw to a close.

Not a moment too soon, yes?. This is, you may recall, our treasured signal to daydream about weekend plans. Our agenda, proscan mri once again, is rather modest.

We plan to catch up on some reading, promenade with our official mascot, and hang around with a short person or two. And what about proscan mri you?. This remains a fine time to forage for apples and pumpkins.

You could shop for a Halloween costume (feel free to write us for suggestions). You might proscan mri want to mail your ballot, but make sure the ballot box is kosher. Or you could look in on someone feeling isolated.

Well, whatever you do, have a grand time. But be safe — proscan mri wear a mask. Enjoy, and see you soon.

€¦A World Health Organization study of more than 11,000 people in 30 countries concluded that proscan mri remdesivir appeared to have little or no effect on 28-day mortality or length of hospital stays among Covid-19 patients, The New York Times writes. The data have not yet been peer-reviewed or published in a scientific journal. Gilead Sciences (GILD), which sells the drug, disputed the conclusions, noting that a variety of drugs and drug combinations had been evaluated under a wide range of circumstances and that more rigorous studies had found a benefit.

Unlock this article by subscribing to STAT Plus and enjoy your first 30 days free!. GET STARTED Log In | Learn More What is it?. STAT Plus is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis.

Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr..

In the course of just under two months that started 40 years ago this week, five events occurred that shaped the biotechnology industry where can you get proscar and bioscience research. Looking back on these seminal events is a reminder of the odd ways in which change happens.Event 1. A Nobel PrizeEarly in the morning of Tuesday, where can you get proscar October 14, 1980, the phone rang at Paul Berg’s house in Stanford, Cal.

The jangling phone worried Berg and his wife because Berg’s father was old and ill, and they feared the worst. Instead, Berg heard the voice of his Stanford colleague, Arthur Kornberg, telling him that Paul had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. The Swedish Royal Academy had been unable to find Berg’s unlisted phone number, but one of Kornberg’s sons had heard the news very early in the morning on the radio and called his father, who called Berg.Berg won half of that year’s prize for basic research into nucleic acids and for “certain aspects of recombinant DNA.” The other half was shared by Frederick Sanger and Walter (Wally) Gilbert for their discoveries about how to sequence DNA.advertisement Many scientists, at Stanford and elsewhere, made where can you get proscar important contributions to the development of recombinant DNA.

Some have questioned why Berg was the sole recipient. The prizes are always difficult to award, particularly with the Nobel Committee’s self-imposed limit of no more than three awardees for any prize (except for the Peace Prize).Once the chemistry committee decided to recognize Sanger and Gilbert for sequencing — each had made substantial progress in very different ways — that left only one slot for recombinant DNA. No one doubts that Berg and his lab made major contributions to where can you get proscar the field and were driving forces in its advance.

But Berg had another role that made him stand out from the crowd. He was a leader, arguably the leader, in organizing a temporary moratorium on recombinant DNA research and in organizing and running the famous Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA at where can you get proscar which the moratorium was discussed.advertisement Event 2. A biotech IPOAround the same time Berg was learning he had won a Nobel Prize, the common stock of a 4-year-old biotech company named Genentech made its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange.

Genentech’s business was based on recombinant DNA and its first products (still two years in the future at that point) were human proteins made by bacteria into which human genes had been slipped using recombinant DNA techniques. When the market opened, the stock traded where can you get proscar for $35 per share. By the end of the day investors had blasted its price higher — all the way up to $88 per share — before closing at $71.The first biotech boom was on, leading many other fledgling biotech startups to go public in the next few months.

Did Genentech’s impressive IPO owe any of its oomph to that morning’s announcement of Berg’s Nobel Prize for recombinant DNA?. We can never know.Event where can you get proscar 3. A new innovation lawExactly one week later, on October 21, President Jimmy Carter signed into law the Stevenson Wydler Technology Innovation Act.

It responded to where can you get proscar concerns that government-sponsored technologies were not being commercialized frequently enough. The act encouraged U.S. National laboratories, such as Fermilab, Brookhaven, Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, among others, to spread information about government-owned technology, in part by requiring them to establish Offices of Research and Technology Applications that were to identify and promote technologies with strong commercial potential.

The Carter administration supported this bill in part because it kept control over who would commercialize those new technologies in the hands of the federal government.This is where can you get proscar the least important of the five events for biotechnology. The National Labs, though engaged in a surprising amount of biological research for organizations derived from nuclear weapons research, were not then hotbeds of bioscience and biotech innovation. Event 4.

A game-changing patentTuesday, December 2, marked the fourth, quietest, but not the least important where can you get proscar of this string of biotech events. The U.S. Patent and where can you get proscar Trademark Office granted U.S.

Patent No. 4,237,224, “Process for producing biologically functional molecular chimera,” to two inventors, Stanley N. Cohen of where can you get proscar Stanford and Herbert W.

Boyer of the University of California, San Francisco. The patent was assigned to Leland Stanford Junior University and the Regents of the University of California. As my colleague Jacob Sherkow and I wrote in 2015:“That patent, the result of research conducted in 1974 on a process where can you get proscar of creating recombinant DNA, i.e., recombining genes, appeared to be the holy grail for geneticists.

Rather than tedious mutational or crossbreeding studies, the Cohen-Boyer technology allowed genetics researchers to study — and create — genes in isolation. With increasing research into the function and characterization of restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA technology opened doors for researchers to both isolate and purify individual genes as well as create analogs of their own.”I haven’t been able where can you get proscar to find any significant publicity about this patent around the time it was awarded, but for the next two decades the Cohen-Boyer patent formed the cornerstone of both the biotech industry and of much biological research. It broadly claimed the methods of recombinant DNA and earned its assignees about $400 million.Stanford administered the Cohen-Boyer patent and took 15% of the proceeds for its trouble.

The remainder was split evenly by Stanford and the University of California system, which distributed them in different ways. Stanford’s practice was (and remains) to give one-third of the proceeds to where can you get proscar the inventor, one-third to the inventor’s department, and one-third to the inventor’s school. This bonanza for Stanford Medical School’s genetics department, of which Cohen was a member — about $70 million — did not endear it to Berg’s and Kornberg’s biochemistry department, which had done, in Berg’s lab and elsewhere, much of the research on recombinant DNA.

On the other hand, the genetics department had been none too pleased by who had (and had not) received the Nobel Prize.It isn’t clear to me if anyone fully realized at the time the patent was granted how important — or lucrative — it would be. Eventually, though, the Cohen-Boyer patent helped where can you get proscar change how universities approached commercializing research. Its large returns prompted first scores, and then hundreds, of colleges and universities to open technology licensing offices.

Today about 200 such offices exist, where can you get proscar although only about a dozen are profitable in any given year (and these are largely the same ones every year, including Stanford’s and the University of California’s). Event 5. Bayh-Dole becomes lawThe fifth and final event took place on Friday, December 12, when then-lame duck President Jimmy Carter signed the Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act, better known as the Bayh-Dole Act.

This law gave universities and other nonprofit research institutions a clear and easy way to where can you get proscar own intellectual property they created, in whole or in part, with federal research funding. It is often credited with having kickstarted the biotech industry. Along with the success of the Cohen-Boyer patent, it certainly encouraged universities to view some parts of biology as potential profit centers.But it almost didn’t come to fruition.

When Indiana Democrat Senator Birch Bayh and Kansas Republican Senator Bob Dole first introduced into the 95th Congress the Small Business Nonprofit Organization Patent Procedures Act, it was a time of great concern where can you get proscar about America’s economy, beset by the 1970s “stagflation” and the perceived economic challenge from Japan.Congress did not act on the bill that year, but Bayh and Dole re-introduced it in the 96th Congress. Although Democrats controlled both the Senate and the House, President Carter opposed the bill. He wanted where can you get proscar a more government-directed path, like the approach taken in the Stevenson-Wydler Act.

Russell Long (D-La.), the powerful chair of the Senate Finance Committee, opposed the bill from a more populist perspective. He wanted the government to get as much profit as possible from any patents. The bill did not pass either chamber before the November 1980 election.That election brought Ronald Reagan to the White House and also cost the Democrats 12 Senate seats, which where can you get proscar would give the Republicans in the 97th Congress, starting in January 1981, their first Senate majority since 1954.

One of the Democrats who would not be returning to the Senate was Birch Bayh, defeated by future Vice President Dan Quayle.The 96th Congress, still with a majority Democratic Senate, held a lame-duck session after the November election, one of 16 such sessions in the 39 Congresses since 1940. The urgency for it came from the lack of budget authority for most of the government, but also for some other important, difficult, and controversial legislation that had been put off until after the election.Strong support for Bayh-Dole in their ranks kept the soon-to-be majority Senate Republicans from opposing its passage. But for the bill to be voted on in where can you get proscar that session required unanimous consent of the Senate — which meant a thumbs up from Long.

He acquiesced, supposedly out of respect and friendship for his departing colleague, Birch Bayh.President Carter did not give any indication whether he would sign the bill. The Constitution gives a president 10 days (not counting Sundays) where can you get proscar to veto a bill, sign a bill, or let it become law without his signature. On the last possible day, December 12, Carter signed it.It is ironic that the Cohen-Boyer patent was issued and assigned to Stanford and UCSF before Bayh-Dole made it easier for universities to patent inventions that had benefited from federal funding.

Both institutions had used money from the NIH and private foundations in the relevant recombinant DNA research, but they did not have to wait for Bayh-Dole’s passage to patent the invention. A pre-existing patent agreement existed between the federal Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (the precursor of the Department of Health and Human Services) and Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing that allowed Stanford and UCSF to patent the technology before Bayh-Dole where can you get proscar took effect.So in two days short of two months, the nascent biotech industry and university biotechnology research were propelled into the future with a Nobel prize, a stunning biotech IPO, two research commercialization acts, and a fundamental patent. And no one at the time seemed to notice their collective importance.

True, there were other things going on then. During the first three weeks, Republican Ronald Reagan, who at the time seemed to be at the conservative extreme of American where can you get proscar politics, was challenging moderately conservative Democrat Jimmy Carter, and on November 4 defeated Carter after only one term in office. For the entire period, 53 U.S.

Diplomats and citizens from the American Embassy in Tehran, Iran, were being held captive, marking their first full year of detention in early November. The economy was still reeling from the second oil crisis and its resulting high inflation (and was about to plunge into a sharp recession).In the midst of all that, largely unnoticed, the building blocks of a new era in biotechnology where can you get proscar came together.And so it often is with history. Some crucial events are obvious.

Others sneak where can you get proscar up on us. And blatant or obscure, through all these momentous historical periods, we go on with our day-to-day jobs, loves, and lives, only rarely looking back and noticing the times in which we lived — sometimes only after 40 years.Henry T. Greely, J.D., is professor of law and professor by courtesy of genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences and chairs the steering committee for the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics.

He thanks Jacob Sherkow and Robert Cook-Deegan for their helpful comments on the article, as well as his research where can you get proscar assistants, Brittany Cazakoff and Cassidy Amber Pomeroy-Carter.In a defiant move, AMAG Pharmaceuticals (AMAG) is refusing to voluntarily withdraw its controversial treatment for preventing premature births, despite a request to do so made earlier this month by the Food and Drug Administration. Instead, the drug maker is seeking a hearing to review the rationale given by the regulator for wanting its Makena medication pulled off the market.The agency explained that a required post-marketing study had failed to verify a clinical benefit and that available evidence does not show Makena is effective for its approved use. A year ago, an FDA advisory panel reached the same conclusion and recommended that the drug — which has been a standard of care across the U.S.

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STAT Plus is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis. Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included? where can you get proscar.

Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr.Hired someone new and exciting?. Promoted a rising star?. Finally where can you get proscar solved that hard-to-fill spot?.

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Unlock this article by subscribing where can you get proscar to STAT Plus and enjoy your first 30 days free!. GET STARTED Log In | Learn More What is it?. STAT Plus is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis.

Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley where can you get proscar and beyond. What's included?. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr.Disarm Therapeutics, a Cambridge biotechnology firm working on new potential drugs for neurological diseases such as ALS and multiple sclerosis, will be bought by the pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Company for $135 million up front.Under the deal announced Thursday, investors in the four-year-old, privately held biotech could reap up to $1.225 billion in additional payments, depending on how well Lilly does developing and marketing new medicines resulting from the acquisition.

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Our award-winning team covers where can you get proscar news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr..

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NCHS Data proscan 55 4k led tv Brief No. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep is associated with an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (1) and proscan 55 4k led tv diabetes (2). Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition.

Menopause is “the permanent cessation proscan 55 4k led tv of menstruation that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity” (3). This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this proscan 55 4k led tv analysis, 74.2% of women are premenopausal, 3.7% are perimenopausal, and 22.1% are postmenopausal.

Keywords. Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept less than proscan 55 4k led tv 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) (Figure 1). Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.

Figure 1 proscan 55 4k led tv. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, proscan 55 4k led tv 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle proscan 55 4k led tv was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 1pdf proscan 55 4k led tv icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged proscan 55 4k led tv 40–59 had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week (19.4%) (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 2 proscan 55 4k led tv. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend proscan 55 4k led tv by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual proscan 55 4k led tv cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 2pdf icon.SOURCE proscan 55 4k led tv.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one in four nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble staying proscan 55 4k led tv asleep four times or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 3 proscan 55 4k led tv. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear proscan 55 4k led tv trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago proscan 55 4k led tv or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table proscan 55 4k led tv for Figure 3pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage proscan 55 4k led tv of women in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week increased from 47.0% among premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.

Figure 4 proscan 55 4k led tv. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories. Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5).

Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion. DefinitionsMenopausal status. A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?.

€. 2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?. €. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?.

€. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?. €Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?.

€Trouble falling asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?.

€ Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis. NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone. Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS.

For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States. The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS.

Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report.

ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454. 2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB.

Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50. 2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No.

141. Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF.

Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon. 2016.Santoro N. Perimenopause.

From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9. 2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult.

A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International. SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software].

2012. Suggested citationVahratian A. Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286.

Hyattsville, MD. National Center for Health Statistics. 2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J.

Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J. Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.

NCHS Data where can you get proscar Brief No. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep is associated with where can you get proscar an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (1) and diabetes (2). Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition. Menopause is “the permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity” where can you get proscar (3).

This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this analysis, 74.2% of women where can you get proscar are premenopausal, 3.7% are perimenopausal, and 22.1% are postmenopausal. Keywords. Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) where can you get proscar (Figure 1).

Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period. Figure 1 where can you get proscar. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend by menopausal status where can you get proscar (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had where can you get proscar a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data where can you get proscar table for Figure 1pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week (19.4%) where can you get proscar (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 2 where can you get proscar.

Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p < where can you get proscar. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last where can you get proscar menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table where can you get proscar for Figure 2pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more where can you get proscar in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one in four nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women.

Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 3 where can you get proscar. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status where can you get proscar (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle where can you get proscar was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 3pdf icon.SOURCE where can you get proscar. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage of women in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested where can you get proscar 4 days or more in the past week increased from 47.0% among premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week. Figure 4 where can you get proscar. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status.

United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle.

Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories. Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5). Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion.

DefinitionsMenopausal status. A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?. €. 2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?.

€. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?. €. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries.

Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?. €Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?.

€Trouble falling asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?. € Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis.

NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone. Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS. For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States.

The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report. ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454. 2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB.

Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50. 2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141.

Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF. Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon.

2016.Santoro N. Perimenopause. From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9. 2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al.

Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult. A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International. SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software]. 2012.

Suggested citationVahratian A. Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286. Hyattsville, MD. National Center for Health Statistics.

2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J. Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J.

Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.

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Community care? where can you get proscar. Our Editor’s Choice this month explores a novel approach to care delivery, the Physician Response Unit (PRU), which aims to reduce ED attendances by finding a community solution to the emergency complaint. Joy and colleagues’ retrospective analysis of 12 months of data from this service, which is based where can you get proscar in London, demonstrated that of nearly 2000 patients attended to, 67% remained in the community.

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In an interesting analysis of PIT from Israel, Schwarzfuchs and colleagues present an uncontrolled before-after analysis of the impacts of this triage strategy on a single time-critical condition, STEMI. At the EMJ, we usually discourage this where can you get proscar type of study. However, here, the authors demonstrate how, with the inclusion of an appropriate logistic regression to consider confounders, this methodology may be an appropriate way to evaluate such interventions which may be difficult to do within a randomised controlled trial.

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The first manuscript within our Wellness section, from Graham and colleagues (this months Reader’s Choice) evaluates the Need where can you get proscar For Recovery (NFR) Score in 168 emergency workers at a single site. The high NFR in this population provides a quantifiable insight into our high work intensity but further validation is required beyond a single site. Over to you TERN….While knowing the extent of the problem is of great importance, what we do about it is perhaps a greater challenge.

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In emergency care, ambulance services have had to consider new types of responses to those usually provided. Policy initiatives have meant local NHS organisations assuming responsibility for managing and monitoring how local services respond to urgent and where can you get proscar non-urgent 999 ambulance calls. Alongside this, the NHS Long Term Plan emphasises the importance of integrating care through a more joined-up multidisciplinary approach that spans boundaries between primary and secondary care but aims to keep patients out of hospital.At the same time, we are facing workforce crisis across the NHS.

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